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H. E. STRICKLAND, M.A., F.G.S., F.R.G.S., 


A '-X > 


A. G. MELVILLE, M.D. Edin., M.R.C.S. 

"Pes et Caput uni 
Eeddentur fornije." — Hor. 








P. B. DUNCAN, ESQ., M.A., 


Cftig seaorfe IS! fingcnbrli, 




ilist Of ^ubsrrtbfrs. 





The Eadcliffe Library, Oxford. 

The Belfast Library. 

The Edinburgh College Library. 

The Signet Library, Edinburgh. 

Zoological Society of London. 

York Philosophical Society. 

Worcestershire Nat. Hist. Society. 

King's CoUege Library, Aberdeen. 

Royal Society of Arts and Sciences, Mauritius. 

The Chevalier Dubus, Brussels. 

The Baron de Selys Longcharaps, Liege. 

Admiral !Mitford, Hunmanby, Yorkshire. 

Sii- Robert HaiTy Ingbs, Bart., M.P. 

Sir John G. DalyeU, Bart. 

Sir W. R. Boughton, Bart., ftwo copies) . 

Sir W. C. Trevelyan, Bart., F.R.S. 

Sir William Jardine, Bart., F.E.S.E. 

Sir T. Tancred, Bart. 

Sir James S. Menteath, Bart. 

The Very Reverend the Dean of Westminster. 

Reverend The Master of University CoUege, Oxford. 

Rev. Dr. Dunbar, Applegarth, Dumfriesshire. 

Rev. Professor Walker, F.R.S., Oxford. 

Rev. Professor Hussey, Oxford. 

Professor Daubeny, F.R.S. 

Professor BeO, F.R.S. 

Professor Lizars, Aberdeen. 

Professor Ansted, F.R.S. 

Professor J. PhUlips, F.R.S. 

Professor J. F. Johnston, Dui'ham. 

Professor H. Lichtensteiu, Berlin. 

Professor Schinz, Zurich. 

Professor Goodsir, Edinljurgh. 

Professor Cai'l J. Sundevall, Stockhobn. 

Rev. J. Hannah, Rector of the Edinburgh Academy. 

Rev. A. D. Stacpoole, New CoUege, Oxford. 

Rev. F. O. Morris, Nafferton, Yorkshire. 

Rev. A. Matthews, Weston, Osfordshii-e. 

Rev. W. C. Fowle, Ewias Hai-old, Herefordshire. 

Rev. W. W. Cooper, Claines, Worcester. 

Rev. J. JI. Prower, Pvrton, Gloucestershire. 

Rev. J. Griffiths, Wadham College, Oxford. 

Rev. T. Ewing, Hobart Town. 

Rev. T. A. Strickland, Bredon, Gloucestersliii-e. 

Rev. W. H. Stokes, Caius CoUege, Cambridge. 

Rev. W. Little, Kirkpatrick Juxta, Dumfriesshire. 

W. J. Hamilton, Esq., M.P. 

R. ParneU, M.D., Edinburgh. 

G. Lloyd, M.D., Warwick. 

H. W. Acland, M.D., Reader in Anatomy, Oxford. 

Dr. Charlton, Newcastle. 

J. Scouler, M.D., Dublin. 

Dr. CogsweU. 

W. A. GreeuhUl, M.D., Oxford. 

C. Hastings, M.D., Worcester. 

Dr. G. Hartlaub, Bremen. 

Dr. Davis, Bath. 

Dr. Bennet, Sydney. 

T.Horsfield,M.D.", F.R.S. 

Hugh Falconer, M.D., F.R.S. 

Mrs. Dixon, Govan HUl, Glasgow. 

Mrs. A. Smith, Edinburgh. 

Mrs. C. Clarke, Matlock. 

Mi-s. Hodder, Leith Links, Edinburgh. 

Miss Christie, Balmuto, Edinburgh. 

Miss Wedderbm-n, Berkhill, Edinburgh. 

Miss Porter, BirUngham, Worcestershire. 

Miss L. Strickland, Dawlish, Devonshire. 

P. B. Duncan, Esq., M.A., New Coll. Oxford, (liro copies). 

James Yates, Esq., M.A., F.R.S. 

C. Stokes, Esq., F.R.S. 

John Edward Gray, Esq., F.R.S. 

John Gould, Esq.," F.R.S. 

WUliam Spence, Esq., F.R.S. 

J. S. Bowerbank, Esq., F.R.S. 

John Arrowsmith, Esq., F.R.G.S. 

WUliam YarreU, Esq., F.L.S. 

P. J. Selbv, Esq. F.L.S. 

Adam White, Esq., F.L.S. 

G. R. Gray, Esq , F.L.S. 

T. C. Eyton, Esq., F.L.S'. 

Major P. T. Cautley. 

Lieut. John Croker. 

T. B. L. Baker, Esq., Hardwick Court, Gloucester. 

J. WoUey, Esq., Edinburgh. 

A. Carruthers, Esq., Warmanbie, Dumfi-iesshirc. 

Andi-ew Murray, Esq., W.S., Edinburgh. 

John M.Fenwick, Esq., GaUow HUl, Morpeth. 

G. R. Waterhouse, Esq., British Museum. 

W. Thompson, Esq., Belfast. 

A. Johnstone, Esq., HaUeaths, Dumfriesshire. 

G. Shuttleworth, Esq. 

W. Bell Macdonald, Esq., Rammerscales, Dumiriesshire. 

Archibald Hepburn, Esq. 

D. W. intcheU, Esq., Sec. Z.S. 
Robert Ileddel, Esq. 

H. N. Turner, Esq. 

T. Stevenson, Esq., C.E., Edinbm-gh. 

Samuel Maunder, Esq. 

W. H. Lizars, Esq., Edinburgh. 

J. W. Salter, Esq. 

C, Winn, Esq., NostaU Priory, Yorkshire. 

J. D. Murray, Esq., JIurraythwaite, Dumfriesshire. 

H. B. W. MUner, Esq., AU Souls' CoUege, Oxford. 

W. V. Guise, Esq., Elmore Com-t, Gloucester. 

And. Jardine, Esq., Lanrig Castle, StirUngshire. 

Edward Wilson, Esq., Lydstip House, Tenby. 

John Henry Gurney, Esq. 

P. L. Sclater, Esq., C.C.C, Oxford. 

J. H. Wilson, Esq., Wadham CoUege, Oxford. 

Henry Deane, Esq. 

George Peevor, Esq. 

T. A. Knipe, Esq., Clapham. 

M. Fairmaii-e, Paris. 

C. W. Orde, Esq., Nunnykirk, Morpeth. 

Samuel E. Cottam, Esq., Brazennose Street, Manchester. 

H. Hussey, Esq., 6, Upper Grosvenor Street, London. 

LoveU Reeve, Esq., F.L.S. 

E. Benliam, Esq. 

F. Reeve, Esq. 


Pakt I. — History and external characters of the Dodo, Solitaire, and other Brevi- 

pennate birds of Mauritius, Eodriguez, and Bourbon 1 

Introduction 3 

Chap. I. The Brevipeiuiate Bird of ilauritius, the Dodo ...... 7 

Section I. Historical E\'idences 7 

Section II. Pictorial Evidences 28 

Section III. Anatomical E\adences 31 

Section IV. Affinities of the Dodo 35 

Chap. II. The Brevipennate Bird of Eodriguez, the Solitaire ..... 46 

Chap. III. Brevipennate Birds of the Isle of Boui-bon 57 

Postscript to Part 1 63 

Part II. Osteology of the Dodo and Solitaire 67 

Introduction 69 

Chap. I. Osteology of the Dodo 71 

Chap. II. Osteology of the Solitaire 113 

Postscript to Part II 120 

Appendix A. Translations of foreign extracts in Part 1 123 

— — B. Bibhography of the Bidina 127 

Explanation of the plates 135 

Index 139 







H. E. STRICKLAND, M. A., F. G. S. 


Among the many remarkable results connected with Organic Life which modern Science 
has elicited, the chronological succession of distinct races of beings is one of the most 
interesting. Geology exhibits to us the vast diversity of organized forms which have 
supplanted one another tlu-oughout the world's history, and in deahng with this remarkable 
fact, we are led to search out the causes for these exits and entrances of successive actors 
on the stage of Nature. It appears, indeed, highly probable that Death is a law of 
Nature in the Species as well as in the Individual ; but this internal tendency to extinction 
is in both cases Uable to be anticipated by violent or accidental causes. Numerous external 
agents have affected the distribution of organic life at various periods, and one of these 
has operated exclusively during the existing epoch, viz. the agency of Man, an influence 
peculiar in its effects, and which is made known to us by testimony as well as by 
inference. The object of the present treatise is to exhibit some remarkable examples of 
the extinction of several ornithic species, constituting an entire sub-family, tln-ough Human 
agency, and under circumstances of peculiar interest. 

The geographical distribution of organic groups in space is a no less interesting result 
of science than their geological succession in time. We find a special relation to exist 
between the structures of organized bodies and the districts of the earth's surface which 
they inhabit. Certain groups of animals or vegetables, often very extensive, and containing 
a multitude of genera or of species, are found to be confined to certain continents and 
their cii'cumjacent islands.' In the present state of science we must be content to admit 
the existence of this law, without being able to enmiciate its preamble. It does not imply 

' To cite one instance among a thousand : the group of Humming Birds, containing hundreds of species, is 
exclusively confined to the American continent and the West Indian Archipelago. 


that organic distribution depends on soil and climate ; for we often find a perfect identity 
of these conditions in opposite hemispheres and in remote continents, whose faunae and 
florae are almost wholly diverse. It does not imply that allied but distinct organisms 
have been educed by generation or spontaneous development from the same original stock ; 
for (to pass over other objections; we find detached volcanic islets which have been ejected 
fi'om beneath the ocean, (such as the Galapagos for instance,) inhabited by terrestrial forms 
allied to those of the nearest continent, though hundreds of miles distant, and evidently 
never connected with them. But this fact may indicate that the Creator in forming new 
organisms to discharge the functions required from time to time by the ever vacillating 
balance of Nature, has thought fit to preserve the regularity of the System by modifying 
the types of structure already estabUshed in the adjacent localities, rather than to proceed 
2^er saltmi by introducing forms of more foreign aspect. We need not, however, pursue 
this enquiry further into obscurity, but will merely refer to the law of geographical distri- 
bution, as bearing on the subject before us. 

In the Indian Ocean, to the east of Madagascar, are three small volcanic islands, which, 
though somewhat scattered, are nearer to each other than to any neighbom-ing land. This 
circumstance gives them a claim to be regarded as a geographical group, a meagre fragment 
of an archipelago, although in a general sense they are connected with Madagascar, and 
more remotely with the African continent. In conformity with the above-mentioned relation 
between geographical distribution and organic structure, we find that a small portion of 
the indigenous animals and plants of those islands are either allied or identical with the 
products of Africa, a larger portion with those of Madagascar, while certain species are 
pecidiar to the islands themselves. And as these three islands form a detached cluster, as 
compared to other lands, so do we find in them a pecuUar group of birds, specifically different 
in each island, yet allied together in their general characters, and remarkably isolated from 
any known forms in other parts of the world. These birds were of large size and grotesque 
proportions, the wings too short and feeble for flight, the plumage loose and decomposed, 
and the general aspect suggestive of gigantic immatmity. The history of these birds was 
as remarkable as their organization. About two centuries ago their native isles were first 
colonized by Man, by whom these strange creatures were speedily exterminated. So rapid 
and so complete was their extinction that the vague descriptions given of them by early 
navigators were long regarded as fabulous or exaggerated, and these bii'ds, almost 


contemporaries of our great-grandfathers, became associated in the minds of many persons 
with the Griffin and the Phoenix of mythological antiquity. The aim of the present work 
is to vuidicate the honesty of the rude voyagers of the 17th century, to collect together 
the scattered evidences which we possess, to describe and depict the few anatomical 
fragments of these lost species which are still extant, to incite the scientific traveller to 
search for fiu-ther evidences, and to infer from the data before us the probable rank of 
these birds in the System of Natui-e. 

These singular bii-ds, which for distinction we shall henceforth designate by the 
technical name Bidince, furnish the first clearly attested instances of the extinction of 
organic species through human agency. It has been proved, however, that other examples 
of the kind have occurred both before and since;' and many species of animals and of 
plants are now undergoing this inevitable process of destruction before the ever-advancing 
tide of human population.^ We cannot see without regret the extinction of the last 
individual of any race of organic beings, whose progenitors colonized the pre-adamite Earth ; 
but our consolation must be found in the reflection, that Man is destined by his Creator 
to "be fruitful and multiply and replenish the Earth and subdue it." The progress of 
Man in civilization, no less than his numerical increase, continually extends the geographical 
domain of Art by trenching on the territories of Natm-e, and hence the Zoologist or Botanist 
of future ages wall have a much narrower field for his researches than that which we enjoy 
at present. It is, therefore, the duty of the naturalist to preserve to the stores of Science 
the knowledge of these extinct or expiring organisms, when he is unable to preserve their 
lives ; so that our acquaintance with the marvels of Animal and Vegetable existence may 
suffer no detriment by the losses which the organic creation seems destined to sustain. 

In the case of the Didina:, it is unfortunately no easy matter to collect satisfac- 
tory information as to their structure, habits, and affinities. We possess only the rude 

' As iustauces, I may mention the Cenm megnceros, or Irish Elk, and the Bos prim igenius, or Urus, destroyed 
ill ancient, and the Rytina Stelleri, or Northern Dugong, in modern times. 

^ Among animals whose doom is jjrobably not far distant ai-e the Bison prisms, or Aiu'ochs, (preserved only 
by imperial intervention in the Bialowicksa forest, whence the Czar has lately eni'iclicd the London Zoological 
Gardens with a living pail-); ih.e. Nestor productus, (a Parrot originally from Phillip's Island near Norfolk Island, 
where it is now destroyed, though a few individuals, which refuse to propagate, still survive in cages); the two 
(not improbable three) species of Jpterijx ; and tlic almost equally anomalous burrowing Parrot, Slriyops Iwbroptilus, 
of New Zealand ; &c. 



descriptions of unscientific voyagers, three or four oil paintings, and a few scattered osseous 
fragments, which have survived the neglect of two hundred years. The paleontologist has, 
in many cases, far better data for determining the zoological characters of a species which 
perished myriads of years ago, than those presented by a group of birds, several species of 
which were living in the reign of Charles the First. 

We shall find it convenient to treat of each island, and of its ornithic productions, 
separately. And, first, of the best known and most celebrated of these creatures, the 
brevipeniiate bird of Mauritius, the Dodo. 






The Brevipennate Bird of Mam-itius, the Dodo, {Bidm ineptus of Linnaeus.) 

Section I. — Bwision of the subject — Historical evidences — Discovery of the Islands — Voyage of Fan Neck ; 

ofHeemskerk and Willem — Dodo's leg at Ley den — Voyage of Matelief; of Van der Rag en ; of Ver- 

■ hufen; of Van dtn Broecke; of Herbert; of CaucJie — Dodo exhibited in London — Account given by 

Tradescant ; by Piso ; by Hubert ; by Olearim — Harry's Voyage — Extinction of the Dodo — Negative 

character of modern evidence. 

Most persons are acquainted with the general facts connected with that extraordinary 
production of Nature, known by the name of the Bodo, — that strange abnormal Bu-d, whose 
grotesque appearance, and the faihu"e of every effort made for the last century and a half to 
discover living specimens, long caused its very existence to be doubted by scientific naturalists. 
We possess, however, unquestionable evidence that such a bird formerly existed in the small 
Island of Mauritius, and it is ascertained with no less certainty that the species has been 
utterly exterminated for a period of nearly two centuries. 

The evidences which we possess respecting the Dodo, may be conveniently arranged on 
the plan adopted by Mr. Broderip, in his valuable essay on the subject,' by dividing them 
into historical, pictorial, and real. 

' Penny Cyclopsedia vol. ix. p. 47. 


In enumerating the historical evidences on this subject, I shall confine myself to 
such authorities as appear to be original and independent of each other. The facts recorded 
by these witnesses have been transcribed and often confounded by a multitude of compilers, 
and it is therefore indispensable to our purpose to attend mainly to the statements of original 
observers, and to refer only incidentally to the remarks of commentators. It has also appeared 
desu-able not merely to translate, but to reprint the exact words of those brave old voyagers, 
who in the infancy of nautical and medical science, encountered a vast amount of peril and 
suifering, and yet found means to observe and record the natural wonders which came in 
their way. 

Compilers are unanimous in stating that the Islands of Mauritius and Bom'bon were first 
discovered by Mascaregnas, a Portuguese, who gave his own name to the latter island, and 
called the former Cerne.' I have not been able to find the original authority for this 
statement, though it is probably founded on fact. Castagneda, Osorio, Barros, Roman, 
Lafitau, and the other authors who treat of the Portuguese conquests in India, record the 
exploits of Pedro Mascaregnas, and of two or three other persons of the name, but apparently 
make no allusion to the discovery of these islands, which, indeed, lay completely out of the 
ordinary track of the Portuguese navigators. There is also a great discrepancy in the date 
assigned to the discovery, which one writer^ fixes at 1502 ; a second,^ at 1505 ; a third,* at 
1542; and a fourth,^ at 1545.*' Be this as it may, it seems clear that nothing definite is 
recorded of Mauritius or its productions until 1598, when the Dutch under Jacob Cornelius 
Neck, or Van Neck, finding it uninhabited, took possession, and changed its name from 
Cerne to Mauritius. 

' The Portuguese discoverers appear to have named this island Ceriw, from an utterly untenable notion 
that it might be the Cerne of Pliny (Hist. Nat. vi. 36, and x. 9.), an island which, according to the usual 
punctuation of the text, lay off the Persian Gidf, but was more proljably on the West Coast of Africa (see A. de 
Grandsagne's edition of Pliny, Paris, 1829, vol. iv. p. 143, and vol. v. p. 344). Later authors, however, from Clusius 
downwards, insist that the Portuguese called it Cerne or Ckiie, i. e. Swan Island, from the Dodos, which they 
compared to Swans (see Clusius, Exotica, p. 101). The statement that Vasco de Gama, in 1497, discovered, sixty 
leagues beyond the Cape of Good Hope, a bay called after San Blaz, near an island full of bii-ds with wings like 
bats, which the sailors called Solitaries (De Blainville, Nouv. Ann. Mus. H.N., and Penny Cyclop. Dodo, p. 47.) 
is wholly irrelevant. The bii-ds are evidently Penguins, and their wings were compared to those of bats, ii'om being 
without developed feathers. De Gama never went near Mauritius, but hugged the African Coast as far as Melinda) 
and then crossed to India, returning by the same route. This small island inhabited by Penguins, near the Cape 
of Good Hope, has been gratuitously confounded with Mauritius. Dr. Hamel, in a Memoir in the Bulletin de la 
Clause Physico-matldmatique de V Acad, de St. Petersbourg, vol. iv. p. 53, has devoted an unnecessary amount of 
erudition to the refutation of this obvious mistake. He shews that the name Solitaires, as appKed to Penguins by 
De Gama's companions, is corru])ted from Sotilicairos, which appeal's to be a Hottentot word. 

- Ersch and Gruber's Encyclopadie. •'' Grant's Mauritius. ■* Penny Cyclopedia. 

* Du Quesne in Leguat's A' oyage, on the authority of a stone pillar, placed in Bourbon by the Portuguese. 

•> In one of De Bry's maps, which Ulustrates ^q first Dutch expedition of 1595-1597, these islands are 
indicated as " I. de Mascarenhas." 

Piatt 11 f.:) 

Comment nous avons [sur flsle Maurice, autrement nommee do Cerne) tenu mesmge. No. 2. 

Fac-smdle of Plate 2 of Tan ISTeclis Voyage. 

Ch. I.] OF THE DODO. 9 

1. In the published naiTativc of this Voyage,^ it is stated that they found in the island 
a variety of pigeons, parroquets, and other birds, among which were some which they deno- 
minated Walchvogel, the size of swans, with a large head furnished with a kind of hood ; no 
wings, but in place of them three or four small black quUls ; and the taU consisted of four or 
five curled plumes of a grey colour. The Dutch sailors called them Walckvoyel, or dugmtinij 
birds, from the toughness of their flesh, as might be expected in the strongly developed crural 
muscles of a cm-sorial bird, though they found the pectoral muscles more palatable. The 
ample supply of turtle-doves also caused the Walckvogel to be the less esteemed. 

The following is De Bry's version of this account, and in cases where the French transla- 
tion (Amsterdam, 1601) differs in sense, the latter is quoted also : 

" Insula dicta praeterquam quod terrse nascentibus feracissima sit, volucres etiam copiosissimas 
alit, ut sunt, turtures, qui tanta ibi copia obversantur, uttemi nostrum dimidii diei spatio 150 aliquando 
ceperimus, plui-es facile prehensmi manibus, aut coesuri fustibus, si illorum onere non nimium nos 
pressos sensissemus. Csrulei quoque psittaci {" parroqueis gris," Fr.) ibi frequentes sunt ut et aves 
alise : preeter quas genus aliud quoque grandius conspicitur, cygnis nostris majus (" de la grandeur de 
nos Cignes," Pr.) capitibus vastis, et pelle ex dimidia parte q. cucuUis investitis. Hee aves alis carent : 
quarum loco tres quatuorve penuse nigriores prodeunt. Caudam cgnstituunt pauculse incurvis pennse 
teueriusculEe, (" au lieu du Cap, out ils quatre ou cincq plumettes cresjmes," Fr.) colorem cineris 
referentes. Has nos Walckvogel appeOitabamus, banc ob causam, quod quo longius sen diutius 
elixarentur, plus lentescerent et esui ineptiores fierent. lUarum tamen ventres et pectora saporis 
jucundi et masticationis facUis erant; {" voire fort coriaces, mak estoient medicine pour l' estomach et 
la poictrine," Fr.). Appellationis causa altera erat, quod turtures ibi optabUi copia nobis sufficerent^ 
saporis longe gratioris et suavioris." — De Bry, pars V. p. 7. 

The quaint old print, of which a fac-simile is annexed, exhibits the voyagers revelling in 
the abundance of this virgin isle. I will not spoil by translation the refreshing simplicity of 
the Batavo-GaUic description which accompanies it. 

" Declaration de ce qzi' avons veu et troure mr V Ide Maurice, et de ce qui est par nous execute. No. :i. 

"1. Sont Tortues qui se tiemicnt sur 1' haut pays, frustez d' aisles pour nager, de telle grandeur, 
qu' ils chargent ung homme et rampent encore fort roidement; prenneut aussi des Escriuisses de la 
grandeur d'un pied, qu' ils mengeut. 

' The earliest account of this voyage which I have seen, was published in folio at Amsterdam, by Comeille 
Nicolas in 1601, and a second edition in 1009, both of which are bomid up in a folio volume of rare tracts, 
preserved in the EadcUife Library. It is entitled ' Le second Livre, Journal ou Comptoir, contenant le vray Dis- 
cours et Nan'ation historique du voyage faict par les huict Navires d' Amsterdam au mois de Mars I'Au 1598 soubs 
la conduitte de 1' Admiral Jaques Comeille Necq, et du Vice-Admiral Wibrant de Warwicq.' Dutch and Gei-maii 
editions were published at the same time, the latter by Hulsius, Niirnberg, 1602, and Frankfort, 1605 ; a Latin 
translation of it occupies the fifth part of De Bi-y's India Orientalis, 1601, and an English version appeared the 
same yeai- in London. Editions were also published in quarto at Amsterdam in 1648 and 1650 ; M. de BlainviUe 
is therefore in error when he states (Nouv. Ann. Mus. H. N. vol. iv. p. 4) that the first account of this voyao-e 
was published at Rouen in 1725. 


" 2. Est una: oiseau, par nous nomme Oiseau de Nausee, a 1' instar d' une Cigne, ont le cul rond, 
couvert de deux ou trois plumettes crespues, caxent des aisles, mais en lieu d'iceUes ont dz trois ou 
quatre plumettes noires ; des susdicts oiseaux avons nous prins une certaine quantite, accompagne 
d' aucunes TourtureUes, et autres oiseaux, qui par noz compaiguons furent prins, la premiere fois 
qu' ds arrivoyeut au pays, pour chercher la plus profonde et plus fraische Riviere, et si les navires y 
pourroyent estre sauvez, et retoumerent d' une grande joye, distribuant chasque navire, de leur Venoison 
prins, dont nous partismes le lendemain vers le port, fournismes chasque navire d'un Pilote de ceux qui 
auparavant y avoyent este ; avons cuict cest oiseau, estoit si coriace que ne le povions asses bovillir, 
mais r avons menge a demy cru. Si tost qu' arrivames au port, envoya le Vice-Admiral nous, avecq 
une certaine troupe au pays, pour trouver aucun peuple, mais n'ont trouve personne, que des Tour- 
tureUes et autres en grande abondance, lesquels nous prismes et tuames, car veu qu' d n' y eust 
personne qui les effraia, n' avoient ilz de nous nidle crainte, tindrent lieu, se laissereut assomer. 
En somme c' est un pays abondant en poisson et oiseaux, voire teUement qu' il excella tous les autres 
audit voyage. 

" 3. Un Dactier, dont les feiidles sont si grandes qu' un homme s' en peult guarantir contre la pluie 
sans se mouillir, et quand on y forre un trou, et le mette en broche y sort d du vin, comme vin Secq, 
amiable et doux : mais quand on le gard trois ou quatre jours, commene' d a aigrer, et pourtant est il 
nomme vin de Palmite. 

" 4. Est un oiseau de nous nomme Rabos Forcados} a cause de leur queue en forme d' une 
Force, fort domptez, et quand on les extend, ont ds bien la longeur d' une brassee, a long becq, tous 
quasi noirs, ayants une poictrine blanche, prennent du poisson volant, qu' ds mengent, aussi les boyaux 
des poissons et oiseaux, comme avons experimente a ceux qu' avions prins, car quand nous les appres- 
tames, et dejettames les entrailles, engloutirent et devoroyent ds lesdicts eutrailles et precordes de leui's 
confreres. Estoyent fort coriaces en cuisant. 

" 5. Est un oiseau de nous nomme le Corbeau Indien,^ ayant la grandeur plus d' une fois que les 
Parroquets, de double et triple couleur. 

"6. Un arbre sauvage, auquel nous avons mis (pour la souvenance si y pourroyent arriver 
aucuiis navires) un aisselet, ome des , armoires d' TLollande, Zelande, et d' Amsterdam, a fin qu' autres 
arrivants audit lieu, pourroyent veoir que les Hollandois y avoyent este. 

"7. Cecy est un Palmite. Bonne partie de ces arbres, furent par nos compagnons abatus, et 
en taiderent cest esclat, quotee de la lettre A, bonne remedee pour la maladie aux membres, de la 
longueur de deux ou trois pieds, par dedans tout blanc ; douce ; aucuns en mangerent bien sept 
ou huict. 

" 8. Est une Chauvesouris, testue en forme de Marmelot, volent icy en grande multitude, se 
pendent en grand nombre aux arbres, ont a la fois un combat entr' eux, en se mordants. 

" 9. Icy dressa le Mareschal une Forge, et pancba la ferrade, repara aussi certain fer qui fust 
es navires. 

"10. Sont Cabannes par nous dlecq construits d' arbres et feivdles, pour ceux qui aidoyent le 
Mareschal et Tonnelier a besoigner ; pour partir avec la premiere commodite. 

"11. En ce lieu fit nostre Ministre Philippe Pierre Delphois homme syncere et candide, une 
Presche fort severe, sans exception de personne, deux fois sur la ditte Isle, devant le disner y alia 1' une 

' This bird is the Fregata aquila, Lin. ^ A species oi Buceros. 

Ch. I.] OF THE DODO. 11 

partie, et apres le disner 1' autre. Icy fut Lam-ent [Madagascarois) baptise, accompagne encore d' uii 
ou deux des nostres. 

" 12. Icy fismes estude de pescher, et en prismes une quantite incroyable, voire en prismes d' un 
seul coup bien deux et demie tonneaux, touts de diverses couleuis." 

A shorter and less complete narrative of this voyage seems to have been published in 
German, which is translated^ in the fomlh part of De Bry's ' India Orientalis,' 1601, p. 105. 
in which the Walckvogel are briefly mentioned as follows : 

" Eodem quoque loco aves plurimse, inveniuntur, tarn grandes ut geminos cycnos aequent. Has 
WalcJistocieri seu Walchmjds noniiuabaut, quarum cames esu baud incommodse erant. Sed cum 
pariter ibidem magna copia Columbarum et Psittacorum appareret, quse adiposse et mansu suavissimse 
essent, socii nostri, grandioribus fastiditis, delicatiores et teneriores aves elegerunt et serumnas suas 
iEarum mactatione diluerunt." 

These birds are also professedly represented in plate III. of the same work, but as the figures 
are evidently copied from Cassoioaries, they are of no authority, and I do not therefore 
reproduce them here. In the description, however, at the foot of this plate is an important 
statement, if true ; viz., that the voyagers brought one of these birds with them to Holland. 
" In eadem insula Psittacorum Colurabarumque numerum quoque maximum repererunt, tam 
cicurum ut fustibus eas prostraverint. Sed et alias ibidem aves visse sunt, quas Walcl-vogel 
Batavi nominarunt, et iinam secum in Hollandiam importarimt." But as no contemporary 
author, not even the diligent Clusius, makes any further allusion to the importation of so 
remarkable a bird, it is possible that De Bry, or his authority, may have confounded the 
history, no less than the portrait, of the Cassowary with that of the Dodo, for it is well 
known that a live Cassowary was brought in 1597 to Holland, where it attracted much 
attention (Clusius, Exotica, p. 97). There are, however, as I shall afterwards show, strong 
grounds for believing that a living Dodo was really brought to Holland some time during 
the first quarter of the 17 th century. 

It would appear from the 'Exotica' of Clusius, 1605, that a third account of this 
voyage had been published in his time, which seems to be unknovm to British bibliographers. 
Nor is this any marvel, when we consider how little Dutch literature is studied in this 
country, and how deficient are the best British libraries in the works of our enterprising 
neighbours in Holland. Clusius's figure of the Dodo is evidently distinct from, and 
more accurate than, the one given by Van Neck {supra, plate II. fig. 2.), and is copied, he says, 
from a published account of Van Neck's voyage. He adds that the beak was thick and 

' Such at least is the inference from the words " omnia ex Germanico Latinitate donata," in De Bry's title 
page. But Camus in his ' Memoire sur la Collection des grands et petits Voyages,' Paris, 1803, p. 213. considers 
the account of Van Neck's Voyage in Part IV. of De Bry, to be only an abridgment of that given in extenso in 
Part v., and not a translation of a separate narrative. He also is of opinion that the first four plates of Part IV. 
have been composed by De Bry from the description given by the voyagers ; and certainly there is a touch of the 
marvellous about them, which favours this idea. 



long, yellowish next the head, with a black point. The upper mandible was hooked, the 
lower had a bluish spot in the middle between the yellow and black part, the bu-d was 
covered with thin and short feathers, the hinder part was very fat and fleshy, the legs were 
thick, covered to the knee with black feathers, the feet yellowish, the toes three before and 
one behind. He further states, that stones were found in the gizzards of these birds, and 
that he saw two of these stones in Holland, one of which, about an inch in length, he has 
figured. His original words are as follows : — 

"Cap. IV. Gallinacem Gallus peregrinus. Ex octo navibus illis quse anno 1598^ Aprili mense, 
ex Hollandia solvebant, &c., quinque .... montosain quandam insulam in conspectu habuenmt, ad 

quam Isetabmidi cursum coiivertemnt Dum in insula haerent, varii generis aves observabant ; 

atque inter illas valde peregrinam, cujus iconem mdi arte delineatam in Diario totam illius navigationis 
liistoriam coutinente, quod reduces cudi curabant, conspiciebam, ad cujus normam est expressa quam 
hoc capiti propono. 

" Ela porro avis peregi'ina Cygnum quidem magnitudine asquabat aut superabat, sed ejus forma 
longe diversa: ejus etenim caput magnum, tectum veluti quadam membrana cucidlum referente; 
rostrum prseterea non planimi, sed erassum et oblongum, subflavi coloris parte capiti proxima, cujus 
extimus mucro niger, superior quidem ejus pars sive prona adunca et curva, in iuferiore verb sive 
supina subcserulea macula mediam partem inter flavam et nigram occupabat. Raris et bre\abus pennis 
tectam esse' aiebant, et abs carere, sed earimi loco quaternas aut quinas dumtaxat longiusculas nigi'as 
pennas habere: posteriorem autem corporis partem prsepinguem et valde crassam, in qua pro cauda 
quaternse aut quiuse crispse convolutseque pennulse cineracei coloris : crura UH potiiis crassa esse quam 
longa, quormn supema pars genu tenus nigris pennulis tecta, inferior cum pedibus subflavi coloris ; 
pedes verb in r^uatuor digitos fuisse divisos, ternos longiores autrorsimi spectantes, quartiuu breviorem 

retrorsiim conversum, omnesque nigris unguibus praeditos Nautse huic avi nomen inde- 

bant suo idiomate Walgh-vogel, hoc est, nauseam movens avis, partim quod post diuturnam elixationem, 
ejus caro non fieret tenerior, sed dm-a permaneret et difficibs concoctionis, (excepto ejus pectore et 
ventriculo, qufe non contemnendi saporis esse comperiebant,) partim quod multos tmiures nancisci 
poterant, quos debcatiores et ori magis grates reperiebant : mliil igitur mirum si prse illis hanc avem con- 
temnerent, et ea se facile carere posse dicerent. In ejus pon'b ventriculo quosdam lapUlos inventos 

Ch. I.] OP THE DODO. 13 

aiebant, quorum bmos hue perlatos conspiciebam apud oniatissimiun viriun Cliristianum Porretum, 
eosque cliversa3 formae, uuuin plenum et orbicularem, alteram insequalem et angulosiun, iUum unciabs 
magnitudiuis, quem juxta pedes avis exprimendum curabam, bmic majorem et graviorem, utruinque 
cineracei coloris ; eos ab ave in maris littore lectos, delude devoratos fuisse verisimile est, nou in ejus 
ventriculo natos." — Exotica, p. 99. 

2. In 1601 two fleets of Dutch sliips, one commanded by Wolphart Harmansen, or 
Harmansz, and the other by Jacob Van Heemskerk, sailed for the East Indies, but soon 
separated. Harmansen's ships touched at Maiu-itius in their way, but in the published 
accounts of his voyage no mention of Dodos occurs. His companion Heemskerk, however, 
remained nearly three months in Mauritius, on his homeward voyage in 1602, and in a journal 
kept by Reyer Cornelisz, and printed in the ' Begin ende voortgang van de Vereenighde 
Nederlantsche Geoctroyeerde Oostindische Compagnie' (oblong 4to, 1646, s. 1.) vol. i,, at 
p. 30 of Van der Hagen's Voyage, we read of " Wallichvogels " or Dodos, among a variety 
of other game : — 

"Op bet lant onthouden baer Scbiltpadden, WaUlchrogek, Flamencos, Gansen, Eendt-vogels, 
Velt-hoenders, soo groot as kleyne Indiaensche Eavens, Duyveu, daer onder sommiglie met roo steerten, 
(van de welcke menig man sieck geweest is,) grauwe ende groene Papegayen, met lange steerten, waer 
van datter sommiglie ghevangen werden." 

8. One of the Captains who sailed in the fleet of Heemskerk and Harmansz, named Willem 
van West-Zanen, has left a journal, which apparently was not published until 1C48, when it 
was edited and enlarged by H. Soeteboom.' In 1602 Willem sailed from Batavia with five 
richly laden ships, commanded by Admu-al Schum-mans, and stayed a considerable time at 
Mauritius.^ He makes repeated mention of Dod-aarsen, or Dodos, and though his account seems 
to have been somewhat amplified by his editor Soeteboom, yet it contains some original and 
important particulars. The sailors appear, on this occasion, to have revelled in Dodos, mthout 
suffering from surfeit, like Van Neck's crew. If the statements are coiTect that three or four, 
and in one instance two, of these birds fiu-nished an ample meal for Vl^illem's men, the bulk 
of the Dodo must have been prodigious, and might well have equalled fifty pounds weight, as 
asserted by Sii- T. Herbert. As this tract is very rare, I will extract, in full, the passages wliich 
mention these birds, and annex a literal translation. 

' This tract is entitled ' Derde voornaemste Zee-getogt (der verbondene vrye Nederlanderen) na de Oost-Indien, 
gedaan met de Acliinsche en Moluksche Vloteu, onder de Ammiralen Jacob Heemskerk en Wolfert Harmansz. 
In den Jare 1601, 1603, 1603. Getrocken Uyt de naarstige aanteekeningen van WUiem van West-Zanen, Schipper 
op de Brain- Vis, en met eenige noodige byvoegselen vermeerdert, door H. Soete-Boom. 4to. Amsterdam, 164S.' 
(Brit. Mus. sp f. 16.) 

2 After leaving Mauritius, Schuunaaus returned to Holland in company with Harmansen and Gamier, Heems- 
• kerk's Vice-Admiral, in the spring of 1603. So that Clusius is mistaken in saying {Exotica, p. 101,) that this 
expedition was commanded by Van Neck, as the latter did not return from his second voyage until some years 


" De Vogelen (daar 't van vol is) zijn van allerliande slag : Duyven, Papegayen, Indische-Eavens, 
Sparwers, Valken, Lijsters, Vlen^ Swaluwen, en menigten van 't kleyn gevleugelt goet ; witte en swarte 
Eeygers, Gansens, Eent-Vogels, Docl-aarsen, Schil-padden, Koeyen vander zee." — fol. 19, p. 2. 

" Waren de Sclieep-lieden alle dagen uyt om Vogelen en meer andere gedierten (diese op 't Landt 
vinden konden) te jagen, daar benevens hieldense nan op, met de Zegens, Hoeken, en andere vissing in 
de weer te zijn ; viervoetige gedierten, uytgezondert Katten, zijnder niet, de onse hebben namaels daar 
Bocken, Geyten en Verkens op-geplaut : De Eeygeren toonden liaar ongetemder als andere Vogelen, 
waren niet wel te krijgen, vermits haar vlugt in de dichte tacken der Boomen ; zy grepen Vogelen 
by sommige Dod-aarsen, by sommige Dronten genaamt ; kregen den naam van W^aUich-Vogels, ten 
tijden dat Jacob van Nek hier was, om datse door t' lang zieden naulijx murruw wilden, tay en hard 
bleven, uytgesondert de borst en maag die seer goet waren, ook om datse door de overvloedige Tortel- 
duyfjes (diese konde bekomen) genoegsaamde de walg kregen van de gemelde Dod-aarsen; haar 
afbeeltsel is in de voorige Plaat ; sy hebben grootc hoofden, en daar kapkens op, zijn sonder vleugelen 
en staarten, hebben alleen ter zyden kleine wiekxkens, achter vier of vijf veerkens, wat meer verhieven 
van de andere ; hebben bekken en voeten, en gemenehjk in de maag een steen eens vnysten groote 
hebbende."— fol. 21, p. 1. 

"De Dod-aarsen met haar ronde stuyten, mosten (om datse wel gevoedt waien) mede stuyt keren; 
't was al in rep en roer wat sig maar reppen kond, de Visschen die voor eenige jaren vredig leefden, 
wierden in de diepste water-kuylen na-gejaagi," &c. — ^Tol. 21, p. 2. 

" Deu 25 (Julius) bracht V\'illem met zijn matrosen eenige Dod-aarsen die seer vet waren ; Scheep, 
al't scheepvolk, hadden aau (hie of ^^er tot een maal-tijdt genoeg te kluyven, en daar schoot noch 

over Sie schikten gerookte Vis, en ook gesouten Dod-aarsen, nevens Land-Scliil-padden, 

en andere Vogelen, aan boordt, weike voor-sorg daar na wel te bate quam. Waren liier mede nog 
eenige dagen doende en besig aan 't Scliip te brengen ; de Matrosen van W^illem brachten op den 4 
van Oegst-maandt 50 grote Vogelen in AtBrui/n-Vis, liier onder waren 24 of 25 Dod-aarsen, so groot 
en swaar datser ter maaltijd geen twee dar van opeten mogteii, al watter voorts over was, wierd' in 't 
sout gesmeten." — Fol. 22, p. 2. 

" 'S anderen-daags toog Hogeveen (WiUems Coopman) met vier matrosen uyt de tent, versien met 
stocken, netten, mosqueten, en ander gereetscha'p, op de Jacht, rende Heuvel en Berg op, Uepen Bosch 
en Valey door, en viugen in de di-ie dagen datse u}^: waren by de ander-half-hondert Vogelen, en 
onder de selve wel 20 Dronten of Dod-aarsen, diese aUe 'i Scheep brachten en in 't sout staken, sulx 
warense vorder, nevens 't andere volk vande vloot, in 't Vogelen en Visschen besig."^ — Fol. 23, p. 1. 


" The birds (of wliich the island is fuU) are of aU kinds : Doves, Parrots, Inchan Crows, Sparrows, 
Hawks, Thrushes, Owls (?), Swallows, and many small bii-ds ; wliite and black Herons, Geese, Ducks, 
Bodos, Tortoises, Sea-cows. 

" The sailors were out every day to hunt for birds and other game, such as they could find on the 
land, while they became less active with their nets, hooks, and other fisMng tackle. No quath'upeds 
occur there except Cats, though our countrymen have subsequently introduced Goats and Swine. The 
Herons were less tame than the other birds, and were difficult to procure, owing to their flying amongst 
the tliick branches of the trees. They also caught birds wliich some name Dod-aarsen, others Dronten ; 
when Jacob van Neck was here, these birds were called Wallkh-Vogels, because even a long boihng 

Ch. I] OF THE DODO. 15 

would scarcely make them tender, but tliey remained tough and hard, with the exception of the breast 
and belly, which were very good ; and also, because, from the abundance of Turtle-doves wliich the 
men procured, they became disgusted \nth the Dodos. The figui'e of these bu-ds is given in the 
accompanmg plate ; they have great heads, with hoods thereon ; they are without wings or tail, and 
have only little winglets on their sides, and four or five feathers beliiud, more elevated than the rest. 
They have beaks and feet, and commonly in the stomach a stone the size of a fist. ^ 

"The Dodos, mth their round stems, (for they were well fattened,) were also obhged to turn tad; 
everything that could move was in a bustle ; the fish, wliich had lived in peace for many a year, were 
pursued into the deepest water-pools. ..... 

" On the 25th July, WUlem and his sailors brought some Dodos wliich were very fat ; the whole 

crew made an ample meal from three or four of them, and a portion remained over They 

sent on board smoked fish, salted Dodos, Land-tortoises, and other game, winch supply was very 
acceptable. They were busy for some days bringing provisions to the ship. On the 4tli of August 
WiHem's men brought 50 large birds on board the Brui/n-Vis; among them were 24 or 25 Dodos, so 
large and heavy, that they could not eat any two of them for dinner, and all that remained over was 

" Another day, Hogeveen (WiUem's supercargo) set out from the tent with four seamen, provided 
with sticks, nets, muskets, and other necessaries for hunting. They chmbed up mountain and liill , 
roamed tlirough forest and valley, and dming the tliree days that they were out they captured another 
half himcfred of birds, including a matter of 20 Dodos, aU wliich they brought on board and salted. 
Thus were they, and the other crews in the fleet, occupied m fowling and fishing." 

This account is accompanied by a very rude plate, intended to represent the " Scheep- 
lieden" killing Dodos ; but as the artist has evidently taken Penguins as his models, I do not 
repeat this engraving. At the foot of the plate are these lines : — 

" Vietali soektmen liier en vlees van't pluim gediert, 
Der pallembomen sap, de dronten rond van stuiten, ^ 

't Wylmen de papegai hoiit dat liij piept en tiert. 
En doet dat and're meer ook raaken inder miuten." 

Which may be thus Englished : — 

" For food the seamen hxmt the flesh of feathered fowl, 
They tap the Pahns, the round-sterned Dodos they destroy, 
The Parrot's life they spare that he may scream and howl, 
And thus liis fellows to imprisonment decoy." 

It is not easy to determine the date when the synonymous words Dodars, from which 
our name Dodo is derived, and Bronte were first introduced. The earliest apparent authority 
for their use is this voyage of Willem van West-Zanen, but his Journal, though written in 
1603, seems to have been unpublished till 1648, and these names may therefore have been 
interpolated among the other alterations made in Willem's text by his editor Soeteboom. 
Matelief's Journal, again, which speaks of Dodaersen, otherwise Dronten, was vn-itten in 1 606, 
and Van der Hagen's in 1607, but I have seen no edition of either work earlier than 

' This description is evidently extracted from Matehef s Voyage. — Vide infra, p. 17. 


1646, and these words may therefore be hkewise due to the officiousness of editors. The 
earhest use of the word Dodars may, after all, date from 1613, when Verhuffen's Voyage 
was published ; here, however, it occurs under the corrupt form of Toiersten. There is little 
doubt that the name is derived from Dodoor, which in the Dutch language means a slufjyurd, 
and is very applicable to the lazy habits and appearance of this bird. Dodaers is not impro- 
bably a cant word among Dutch sailors, analogous to our term " lubber ^ and perhaps aims at 
expressiveness rather than elegance. Sir Thomas Herbert was the first to use this name in 
its modern form of Dodo. He tells us that it is a Portuguese word ; and, in fact, we find that 
doudo in the last-named language, means "foolish'' or " simple J' But as none of the 
Portuguese voyagers appear to have mentioned the Dodo, nor even to have visited Mauritius 
subsequently to their first discovery of the island, such a derivation is highly improbable. 
It seems far more hkely that Dodars is a genuine Dutch word, and that the pedantic Sir 
Thomas, who delighted in far-fetched etymologies, altered it to Dodo in order to make it fit 
with his philological theories. 

The derivation of the word Dronte, is still more obscure than that of Dodo. Geniian, 
Dutch, and Scandinavian dictionaries are alike unconscious of such a word. Can it be synony- 
mous in meaning with Dodoor, and allied to the English drone, in German, drolme ? 

4. In 1605, Clusius saw in the house of Pauwius, a professor at Leyden, a Dodo's leg, 
which he describes as having the tarsus a little more than four inches long, and nearly fom- 
inches in cii'cumference, covered with thick yellowish scales, broad in front, and smaller and 
darker coloiu-ed behind. The middle toe to the nail, was a little over two inches long, the 
two next were under two inches, and the hind toe one inch and a half ; all the claws were thick, 
black, and less than an inch long, except that of the back toe, which exceeded an inch. All trace 
of this specimen is now lost. It is not mentioned in the ' Catalogue of all the cheifest rarities 
in the publick Theater and Anatomie-Hall of the University of Leiden,' 4to., Leiden, 1678 ; 
nor in a later edition of that Catalogue, pubhshed by Gerrard Blancken, in 1707 ; nor in the 
apparently contemporaiy tract entitled ' Res curiosae et exoticaj in Ambulacro Horti Acade- 
mici, Lugduno-Batavi conspicua; ;' nor in two old catalogues of wet preparations preserved 
at Leyden, all which are bound together in a volume in the Bodleian Library (Line. F. 1. 31.); 
and M. de Blainville tells us that he sought for it in the Museums of Leyden and Amsterdam 
without success. The following is Clusius' account : — 

" Verumenimverb, conoinnata et descripta jam qua potui fide hujus avis historia, iUius cms genu tenus 
rescissum apud CI. Y. Petrum Pawium, primarimn artis medicse in Academia Lugduno-Batava Profes- 
sorem videre contigit recens e Mauritii Insula relatuin. Erat autem non valde longum, sed a genu 
usque ad pedis inflexionem paullo plus quam quatuor uncias superabat ; ejus vero crassitude magna, 
ut cujus ambitus psene quatuor uncias aequabat, crebrisque corticibus seu squamis tectum erat, prona 
quidem parte latioribus et flavescentibus, supina verb minoribus, et fuscis : pedis etiam digitorum 
prona pars singularibus iisque latis squamis prsedita, supina autem tota callosa : digiti satis breves pro 
tam crasso crui'e ; nam maximi sive medii ad unguem usque longitude binas uncias non admodum 

Ch. L] of the dodo. - 17 

superabat, aliorum duorum illi proximorum vix binas uncias fequabatj posterioris sescxuiciam : omnium 

verb ungues crassi, duri, uii^ri, minus uncia longi, sed posterioris digiti longior reliquis, et unciam 
superans." — Exotica, lib. v. cap. iv. p. 100. 

5. Cornelius Matelief, a Dutch Admiral, arrived at Mauritius in 1606, and after alluding 
in his Journal to the abundance of birds in the island, he proceeds : — 

" On y trouve encore un certain oisean, que quelques-uns nommeut Dodarse, on Dodaersen : 
d'autres lui donnent le nom de Dronte. Les premiers qui vinrent en cette isle les nommerent Oiseaux 
de degoiit, parce qu' ils en pouvoicnt prendre assez d' autres, qui etoient meilleurs. Us sont aussi 
grands qu' un eigne, et converts de petites plumes grises, sans avoir d' ailes ni de queues, mais seule- 
ment des ailerons aux cotes, et 4 ou 5 petites plumes au derriere, un peu plus elevees que les autres. 
Leuis pies sont grands et epais, leur bee et leurs yeux fortlaids, et ordinairement ils out dans 1' estomac 
une pierre aussi grosse que le poing." — Recueil des Voiages de la Comp. des Ind. Or. vol. iii. p. 214. 

The Dutch version of this account is as follows : — 

"Meuvdnter ooc sekeren vogel, cbe van sommige Dodaersen genaemt wort, van wifSsxzBronteu, de 
eerste die hier arriveerden Metense Walgh-voghels, om datse andere genoech konden krijgen. Dese ziju so 
groot als een Swane, met kleyne grauwe veerkens, sender vleugelen oft staert, liebben alleen ter zijde 
klcTOe wiecken, ende achter vier of vijf veerkens, wat meer verheven als de andere, hebben groote 
dicke voeten, met een grooten leelijcken beck en oogen, ende hebben gemeeidijck inde mage een steen 
so groot as een vuyst. Sy zijn redebjck om te eten, maer t' beste datter aen is, is de maeg." — Begin 
ende voortgangh der Vereeniglide Nederl. Geoctroyeerde Oostindische Compagnie, vol. ii., Matelief's 
Voy. p. 5. 

6. In 1607 two ships under the command of Van der Hagen remained some weeks in 
Mauritius, and the crews feasted on an abundance of " tortoises, dodars, pigeons, turtles, grey 
parroquets, and other game." Not content with devouring numbers of these animals, it is 
stated that they salted quantities of tortoises and dodars for consumption during the voyage : — 

"Pendant tout le temps qu' on fut la, on vecut de tortues, de dodarses, de pigeons, de touiterelles, 

de perroquets gris, et d' autre cliasse, qu' on alloit prendre avec les mains dans les bois La 

chair des tortues terrestres etoit d' un fort bon gout. On en sala, et 1' on en fit fumer, dont on se trouva 
fort bien, dememe que des dodarses qu' on sala." — Recueil des Voiages de la Compagnie des Indes Or. 
vol. iii. p. 195, 199. See also Prevost, Eecueil des Voyages. Eouen, 1725, v. 5. g. 246. 

The Dutch original is to be found in the Journal of Steven Van der Hagen in the ' Tweede 
deel van het begin ende voortgangh der Vereenighde Nederl. Geoctroyeerde Oostindische 
Compagnie,' 1646, pp. 88, 89 :— 

" Alle den tijt dat liier lagen, zijiule ontrent 23 dagen, aten anders niet dan Scliilt-padden, 
Dodaersen, Duyven, &c. ... 'T Vleesch vande Landt Scliilt-padden is goet, ende smakehjck, is door 
eenighe van d' haeren ghesouten, ende gheroockt, dat hem M'onder wel ghehouden lieeft, als cock de 
Dodaersen, die ghesouten hebben." 

7. We next come to the narrative of P. W. VerhufFen, who touched at Mam-itius in 1611, 
and mentions Dodos under the name of Totersten. He describes them in nearly the same 



terms as Van Neck, and adds that his sailors daUy kiUed numbers of thena for food, and that 
if the men were not careful the Dodos inflicted severe wounds upon their aggressors with 
their powerful beaks. The earhest account of this voyage is entitled ' Eylffter Schifi'art, ander 
Theil oder Kurtzer Verfolg und Continuirung der Reyse, so von den Holl-und Seelandern in 
die Ost Indien mit neun grossen imd vier kleinen SchifFen vom 1607 biss in das 1612 Jahr, 
unter der Admiralschafft Peter Wilhelm Verhuffen verrichtet worden.' Pubhshed by L. 

Hulsius, 4to. Franckfort, 1613 : — 

"Es hat auch daselbst viel Vogel als Turteltauben, grawe Papagayen, Eabos forcados, Feldhuner, 
Eebhiiner, und andere Vogel, an der grosse den Schwanen gleich, mit grossen Kopffen, haben ein Pell, 
gleich einerMiiiichskutten iiber demKopff und keine Pliigel, denn an statt derselbeu stehen etwan 5 oder 6 
f)-elbe Pederlein, dess£,deichen haben sie auch au statt dess Schwantzes etwan 4 oder 5 uber sich gekeunte 
Pedern stehen ; von Parben seynd sie grawlecht; man nennet sie Totersten oder Walckvogel, derselben 
nun'gibt es daselbst ein grosse menge; wie denn die Hollander tiigHch derselben viel gefangen und 
o-essen haben, denn nicht allein dieselben, sondem auch ins gemeiu aUe Vogel daselbst so zahm seyn, dass 
sie die Tuiteltauben, wie denn auch die andere wilde Tauben und Papagayen mit Stecken geschlagen, 
und mit den Handen gefangen haben ; die Totersten oder Walckvogel haben sie mit den Hiinden 
a;e"Tiffen, musten sich aber wolil fursehen, dass sie sie nicht mit den Schniibeln, welche sehr gross, 
dick und knunm seyn, etwan bey eim Arm oder Beiu ergriffen, denn sie gewaltig hart zubeissen 
pflegen." — p. 51. See also De Bry, India Orientahs, pars ix. Supp. p. 22. 

8. The fio-ure of which the following is a fac-simile, is introduced in the Voyages of Pieter 
Van den Broecke, contained in the ' Begin ende voortgangh der Vereen. Nederl. Geoctr. Oost- 
ind. Compagnie, vol. 2, numb, xvi, p. 102.' The plate contains three figiu-es, representing a 
Dodo, a single-horned Goat, and a bird not unlike the Apteryx in appearance. The goat is 
mentioned in the text as having been sent to the author when at Surat, as a present from the 
Sovereio-n of Agra. I can find however no notice in Van den Broecke's journal of the Dodo, 

'o" "* ^'■b'- 

or of the other bird which he has figured, and I can therefore only conjecture that they 
were sketched during his visit to the Mauritius (mentioned in page 68,) which lasted from 

Ch. I.] 



April 19 to May 23, 1617. As the work which contains these figures is very rare, it may be 
well to mention that Thevenot has introduced a reversed copy of the entu'e plate (v\ithout 
stating the somxe) as an Ulustration to Bontekoe's notice of brevipennate birds in Bourbon 
(page 5,) to which however it can have no reference whatever. — See Theveiiofs Voyages, vol. 1. 

Though unaccompanied by any description, there can be no doubt that Van den Broecke's 
figure is an authentic and original representation of the Dodo, and the rudeness of the 
design is a proof of its genuineness. The wings are here represented as rather longer and 
more pointed than in the other figures. 

Wliat bud Van den Broecke's other figure may be intended to represent, or from what 
country it came, must be left to conjecture, and I only introduce it here from its apparently 
brevipennate character. 


9. Sir Thomas Herbert, in 1627, visited Mauritius, and found it still uninhabited by 
man. In his Travels, he describes and figures the Dodo, but without adding much to our 
knowledge. It appears to have been the amusement of Sir T. Herbert's later days repeatedly 
to re-write his Travels, changing the words of each successive edition, but without much 
alteration in the sense. The following extracts from three editions of the work will exhibit the 
quaintness of the author's style, and render his observations on the Dodo more complete : — 

A Relation of some yeares' Travaile, 
begunne Anno ] 626, into Afrique 
and the greater Asia, especially the 
territories of the Persian Monar- 
chie, and some parts of the Orien- 
tal! Indies and lies adiacent. By 
T. H. Esquier. Fol. London, 

Some yeares Travels into divers parts 
of Asia and Afrique, describing 
especially the two famous empires 
the Persian and Great Mogidl. Re- 
vised and enlarged by the Author. 
Fol. London, 1638. 
" The Dodo comes first to our de- 
scription : here and in Bi/garrois, 

Some Years Travels into divers parts 
of Africa and Asia the great. Fol. 
London, 1677. 

" The Dodo ; a bird the Dutch call 
Walghvogel or Dod Eersen; her body 
is round and fat, which occasions the 
slow pace, or that her corpidencie ; 
and so great as few of them weigh 



[Part I. 

" First, liere and here only and in 
Bygarroys, is generated the Dodo, 
which for shape and rarenesse may 
antigonize the V\iWi\\\ pi Arabia: her 
body is round and fat, few weigh lesse 
then fifty pound, are reputed of more 
for wonder then food, gi-easie sto- 
mackes may seelie after them, but to 
the delicate, they are offensiue and of 
no nourishment. 

Her ■sdsage darts forth melancholy, 
as sensible of Nature's injurie in 
framing so great a body to be guided 
with complementall wings, so smaU 
and impotent, that they serue only 
to prove her Bird. 

The halfe of her head is naked, 
seeming eouered with a tine vaOe, 
her bill is crooked downwards, in 
midst is the thrill, fi-oni which part 
to the end tis of a light greene, mixt 
with a pale yellow tincture ; her eyes 
are small, and like to Diamonds, 
round and rowling ; her clothing 
downy feathers, her traine three 
small plumes, short and inproportion- 
able, her legs suting to her body, 
her poimces sharpe, her appetite 
strong and greedy, Stones and Iron 
are digested, which description will 
better be conceiued in her represen- 
tation.— P. 211. 

(and no where else that ever I could 
see or heare of,) is generated the 
Dodo, (a Portuguize name it is, and 
has reference to her simplenes,) a 
Bird which for shape and rarenesse 
might be called a Phoenix (wer't in 
Arabia :) her body is round and ex- 
treame fat, her slow pace begets that 
coi-pulencie ; few of them weigh lesse 
than fifty pound : better to the eye 
than stomack : greasie appetites may 
perhaps commend them, but to the 
indifferenily curious, nourishment, 
but prove offensive. Let's take her 
pictiu'e : her visage darts forth me- 
lancholy, as sensible of Nature's in- 
jmie in framing so great and massie 
a body to be directed by such small 
and complementall wings, as are un- 
able to hoise her from the ground, 
serving only to prove her a Bird ; 
which otherwise might be doubted 
of: her head is variously drest, the 
one half hooded with dowmy blackish 
feathers ; the other perfectly naked; 
of a whitish hue, as if a transparent 
Lawne had covered it : her bill is very 
howked, and bends downwards, the 
thrill or breathing place is in the 
midst of it ; from which part to the 
end, the colour is a light greene 
mixt with a pale yeUow ; her eyes be 
round and small, and bright as Dia- 
monds ; her cloathing is of finest 
Downe, such as you see in Goslins ; her 
trayne is (like a China beard) of three 
or fom-e short feathers; her legs thick, 
and black, and strong ; her taUons or 
pounces sharp, her stomach fiery hot, 
so as stones and iron are easily di- 
gested in it ; in that and shape, not 
a little resembling the Africk Oes- 
triches : but so much as for their 
more certain dift'ereuce I dare to give 
thee (\vith two others) her represen- 
tation.— P. 347. 

less than fifty pound : meat it is with 
some, but better to the eye than sto- 
mach ; such as only a strong appe- 
tite can vanquish : but otherwise, 
through its oyliness it cannot chuse 
but quickly cloy and nauseate the 
stomach, being indeed more pleasur- 
able to look than feed upon. It is of 
a melancholy visage, as sensible of 
Nature's injui-y in framing so massie 
a body to be directed by complemen- 
tal wings, such indeed as are unable 
to hoise her from the ground, serving 
only to rank her amongst Birds : her 
head is variously drest, for one half is 
hooded with down of a dark colour ; 
the other half naked and of a white 
hue, as if lawn were drawn over it ; 
her bin hooks and bends downwards; 
the thiiU or breathing place is in the 
midst ; from which part to the end 
the colour is of a light green mixt 
with a pale yellow; her eyes are round 
and bright, and instead of feathers 
has a most fine down ; her train (like 
to a Chyna beard) is no more than 
three or fom' short feathers : her leggs 
ai'e thick and black ; her tallons 
gi-eat ; her stomach fiery, so as she 
can easily digest stones ; in that and 
shape not a little resembling the Os- 
trich. The Dodo and one of 

the Hens take so well as in my table- 
book I could di-aw them."— P. 383. 

Ch. I.] or THE DODO. 21 

Sii- T. Herbert also gives a figure of what he calls " A Hen," which is very probably 
intended for the same bird which accompanies theDodo in Van den Broecke's plate [sitpra, p. 19). 
He alludes to " Hens" among the other birds of Mauritius, but gives us no information by which 

they can now be identified. This bird is probably the same that is mentioned by Leguat, 
among other Mauritian birds, under the name of Gelinottes. The " Velt-hoenders" of Cornelisz 
{supra, p. 13), and the " Feldhimer" of Verhufien (p. 18), may also refer to it. Compare also 

the words of Cauche : " II y a en I'isle Maurice et Madagascar des poules rouges, 

cm bee de becasse ; pom- les prendre il ne faut que lem' presenter une piece de drap rouge, 
elles suivent et se laissent prendre a la main : elles sont de la grossem* de nos poules, excel- 
lentes a manger." — Cauche, Voyage, p. 132. 

10. Franyois Cauche, in the account of his Voyage made in 1638, published in the 
' Relations veritables et curieuses de I'lsle de Madagascar, Paris, 1651,' says that he saw in 
Mauritius birds called Oiseaux de Nazaret, larger than a swan, covered with black down, with 
curled feathers on the rump, and similar ones in place of wings ; that the beak was large 
and curved, the legs scaly, the nest made of herbs heaped together, that they lay but one egg 
the size of a halfpenny roll, and that the young ones have a stone in the gizzard. 

With a view of deducing the size of these eggs, I was contemplating an investigation of 
the prices of corn, the wages of labour, the honesty of bakers, and other elements, in hopes of 
determining the bulk of a " pain d' im sol" in 1638, but I have fortunately been spared this 
enquiry by another passage of Cauche, where .he assigns the same dimensions to the egg of 
the Cape Pelican iPelicanus onocrotahis), which may therefore be taken as an approximation to 
the size of the Dodo's egg. There can be no doubt that the bird described by Cauche was 
the Dodo, although his account was probably composed from memory, or confused with the 
descriptions then current of the Cassowary ; for he tells us that it had only three toes on each 
foot, that the legs were of considerable length, and that the bird had no tongue, which latter 
character was at that time falsely attributed to the Cassowary. (See De Biy, part IV. pi. viii.) 
Out of this erroneous statement sprang up the " Didus nazarenus," a phantom-species, which 
has haunted our systems of ornithology from the days of Gmelin downwards. Cauche conjec- 
tures, and many authors repeat, that these birds derived their name from the island, or rather 
sand-bank, of Nazareth, to the north-east of Madagascar, but this idea is utterly unfounded. 


Can the name oiseau de Nazaret have been a bhmder, founded on oiseau de nausee, the French 
translation of WaJghmyel ? 

We will now put Cauche himself in the witness-box : — 

" J'ay veu dans I'isle Maurice des oiseaux plus gros qu'un cygue,' sans plumes par le corps, qui 
est couvert d'un duvet noir, il a le cul tout rond, le croupion ome de plumes crespues, autant en nombre 
que cliaque oiseau a d'aniiees, au Heu d' aisles ils out pareilles plumes que ces dernieres, noires et 
recourbees, ils sent sans langues, le bee gros, se courbant un peu par dessous, liauts de jambes, qui sont 
escaiUees, n'ayans que trois ergots a cliaque pied. II a un cry comme I'oisoii, il n'est du tout si 
savoureux a manger, que les fouches et feiques [flamingos and ducks], desqueUes nous venous de parler. 
Ils ne font qu'mi CEuf, blanc, gros comme un pain d'un sol, contre lequel ils mettent une pierre blanche 
de la o-rosseur d'un ccuf de poides. lis ponnent sur de I'herbe qu'ds amassent, et font leurs nids dans 
les forests, si on tue le petit, on trouve une pierre grise dans son gesier, nous les appeUions oiseaux de 
Nazaret. La graisse est exceUente pour adoucir les muscles et nerfs." — Relation du Voyage de 
Francois Cauche, p. 130.^ 

11. Oiu' next evidence is of a very important kind, as it shews that in one instance at least 
this extraordinary bu-d was brought alive to Europe, and exhibited in this country. In a MS. 
(Sloane MSS., 1839, 5, p. 9) in the British Museum, Sir Hamon Lestrange (the father of the 
more celebrated Sir Roger), in a commentary on Brown's Vulgar Errors, and apropos of the 
Ostrich, narrates as follows : — 

"About 1638, as I walked London streets, I saw the pictui-e of a strange fowle hong out upon a 
cloth, [liiatus in the MS.] and myselfe with one or two more then in company went in to see it. It 
was kept in a chamber, and was a great fowle somewhat bigger than the largest Tui-ky Cock, and so 
legged and footed, but stouter and thicker aud of a more erect shape, coloured before Hke the breast of 
a yong cock fesan, and on the back of dunn or deare coulour. The keeper called it a Dodo, and in 
the ende of a chymney in the chamber there lay a heape of large pebble stones, whereof hee gave it 
many in our sight, some as bigg as nutmegs, and the keeper told us shee eats them (conducing to 
digestion), and though I remember not how farr the keeper was questioned therein, yet I am confident 
that afterwards shee cast them all againe."^ 

I have endeavoured to find some confirmation from contemporary authorities of this very 
interesting statement, but hitherto without success. The middle of the 17th century was 
most prolific in pamphlets', newspapers, broadsides, " rows of dumpy quartos," and literary 
" rubbish-mountains," as Mr. Carlyle designates them ; but the political storms of that period 
rendered men blind to the beauties and deaf to the harmonies of Nature, and its literature is 
very barren in physical research. Still there may possibly linger among om- records some 

' " La figure de cet oiseau est daus la 2 navigation des Hollandois aux Indes Orientales en la 29 diee de 1' an 1598. 
Ils Fappellent, de nausee." 

- " Peut-estre, que ce nom leui- a esto donne, pour avoir este trouvez dans I'isle de Nazare, qui est plus haul que 
celle de Maiuice, sous lu 17 degre au dela I'Equateiu- du coste du Sud." 

3 TUs passage was first published in Wilkin's edition of Sir Thomas Brown's Works, 4 vols. 8vo. Lond., 1836. 
V, l,p. 369; v. 2, p. 173. 

Ch. I.] OP THE DODO. 23 

black-letter hand-bill or illiterate tract, which may allude to what must have been, in that 
marvel-loving though unscientific age, a very attractive exhibition. To the bibliophile who 
shall discover such a document, I promise a splendidly-bound copy of The Dodo-book. In 
the meanwhile we will pass on to the 

12th independent notice of the Dodo, which is contained in Tradescant's Catalogue of 
his "Collection of Rarities preserved at South Lambeth near London," 1656. We here find 
one of the entries " Dodar from the island Mauritius ; it is not able to flie being so 
big." — p. 4. 

This specimen is enumerated under the head of " whole birds ;" and Willughby, whose 
" Ornithologia" was published in 1676, speaking of the Dodo, says, "Exuvias hujusce avis 
vidimus in museo Tradescantiano." It is also alluded to by Llhwyd' in 1684, and by Hyde^ 
in 1700, having meanwhile passed with the rest of Tradescant's curiosities into the Ashmolean 
Museum at Oxford, where the head and foot of this specimen are fortunately still extant. I 
shall speak further of these hereafter, and will at present only remark that this is in all proba- 
bility the same individual which was exhibited in London, and which Lestrange described in 
1638. Tradescant, we know, spent his life in collecting curiosities ; and as there was at that 
time scarcely any other museum, public or private, in Great Britain to enter into competition 
with his, we may suppose that such a rara avis as this live Dodo must have been, would 
naturally on its decease find its way into his cabinet.^ Another not impossible conjecture is, 
that this specimen was brought from ]Mauritius by Sir T. Herbert, who in a letter to Ashmole, 
quoted in Hamel's "Tradescant der Aeltere," p. 173, says, " South Lambeth, a place I well 
know, having been sundry times at M. Tredescon's (to whom I gave severall things I col- 
lected in my travels)." 1 think, however, that had the garrulous Sir Thomas actually killed, 
skinned, and brought home a Dodo, he would not have failed to record such an exploit in 
his Travels. 

13. In Piso's edition of Bontius, 1658, there is a description and figure of the Dodo, 
though perhaps neither can be regarded as original and independent testimonies. The figm-e 
seems to be copied from one of Savery's paintings, of which I shall speak presently, and the 
description adds little, if anything, to the details contained in previous authors. Copies of this 
engraving were subsequently published in Thevenot's Voyages, vol. 1, in Willughby's 
Ornithology, pi. 27, and other works ; but as Piso's figure is the earliest known copy from 

' Catalogiis Animalium quae in Museo Asbraoleaiio conservantur ; MS. No. 29. 

2 Historia Religioiiis veterum Persarum. 4to. Oxon. 1700, p. 312. Apropos of Zoroaster's motlier, whose name 
was Dodo. He quotes Herbert's account, and adds (on what authority is unknown) tliat the bird Uiid numerous 
e'TO's, though Cauche's statement that it lays but one (confirmed by Leguat's similar assertion of the Solitaire) is 
more probable. 

3 Since writing the above, I see that Dr. Hamel has come to a similar conclusion. — Bull. Phys. Ac. Petersb. 
May 29, 1846. 




[Part I. 

Saveiy's designs, I have thought it worth insertion here, together with tlie accompanying 
description, which forms one of Piso's supplementary chapters to " Jacobi Bontii Historiae 
naturahs et medicae Indias Orientalis hbri sex," contained in " Guliehui Pisonis Medici 
Amstelsedamensis de Indise utriusque re naturali et medica libri quatuordecim." fol. Amstel- 
aedanii, 1658. 

'^^^ "-—' 

At chapter xvii., p. 70, we read : — 

" De Dronte, aliis Dodaers. Inter insulas Indise orientalis, ceusetur iUa quae ab aliis Cerne 
tlicitur, a nostratibus Mamitii nomen audit, ob Ebenuin nigrum potissimum Celebris. In hac insula 
frequeus est miree conl'ormationis avis, Bronte dicta. Magnitudinis intra Strutliionem et Galium 
Indicum, a quibus ex parte figura discrepat, et ex parte cum iis convenit, imprimis cum Strutliionibus 
Africanis, si ui-opygium, pennas, et plumas consideres ; adeo ut Pygmseus quasi inter eos appareat, si 
crui'um brevitatem respicias. Coeterum capite est magno, deformi, tecto quadam membrana, cucullum 
referente. Oculis magnis, nigris ; collo curvo, prominente, pingui ; rostro supra modum longo, valido, 
ex coeruleo albicante, exceptis extremitatibus, quarum inferior nigricat, superior flavescit, utraque 
acuminata, et adunca. Rictu fcedo, admodum patulo, quasi ad ingluviem nato. Corpore obese, 
rotundo, quod moUibus pluniis griseis, more Strutliionum vestitur : ab utroque latere, loco remigum, 
exiguis alis plimiatis, ex llavo cinereis, et poue ui'opygium, loco caudte, quinis pinnulis crispis, ejusdem 
coloris, decoratur. Cruribus est ilavescentibus crassis, sed admodum curtis, quatuor digitis pedis 
solidis, longis, quasi squamosis, totidem unguibus vaHdis nigris incedit. Cseterum tardigrada est avis 
et stupida, quseque facile prteda fit venatoribus. Caro earum, imprimis pectoris, est pinguis, vesea, 

Ch. L] of the dodo. 25 

adeoque multa ut tres quatuorve Brontes centeiiis sociis satiu-anclis aliquando suffecerint. Si noii probe 
elixentiu-, vel veteres siiit, difiicilioris sunt concoctionis, et salitfe in peuu recondimtur. 

Lapilli diversse formse et magnitudinis, cinerei coloris, iii ventriculo liarum avium reperiuntur, nou 
tamen ibi nati, ut vulgus et pubes nautica arbitratuXj sed in littore devorati, quasi et hoc quoque signo 
cum Struthionis natura aves has participare constaret, quod durissima qujeque deglutiant, nee tamen 

The 13th historical testimony which I have to adduce is contained in a small tract in the 
Ashmolean Museum (Ashm. Printed Books, No. 967). Of this there are two editions, the 
first without date, and entitled " A Catalogue of part of those Rarities collected in thu'ty 
years time with a great deal of Pains and Industry, by one of his Majestie's sworn Servants, 
R. H. alias Porges, Gentleman. They are to be seen at the place formerly called the Musique 
House at the West end of Pauls." Here, among other rarities, we find at p. 11, " A Dodo's 
Leg, it is a bird that cannot flye." The second edition is entitled, " A Catalogue of many 
natural rarities with great industry, cost, and thirty years travel in foraign Countries collected 
by Robert Hubert ahas Porges, Gent, and sworn servant to his Majesty. And daily to be 
seen at the place formerly called the Music House near the West end of St. Paul's Church." 
12mo, London, 1665. At page 11 is the following entry: "A legge of a Dodo, a great 
heavy bird that cannot fly ; it is a Bird of the Mauricius Island." In all probability this is 
the same specimen that afterwards passed into the collection of the Royal Society, and is 
mentioned in the catalogue of their " Natural and artificial Rarities," published by Grew in 
1681, who thus describes it : — 

" The leg of a Dodo The leg here preserved is covered with a reddish yellow scale. 

Not much above four inches long ; yet above five in thickness, or round about the joynts : wherein 
though it be inferior to that of an Ostrich or Cassoary, yet joyned with its shortness, may render it of 
almost equal strength." — p. 60. 

This specimen is now preserved in the British Museum, and I shall notice it hereafter under 
the head of Anatomical Evidences. ' 

14. Olearius, in his Catalogue of the Gottorf Museum at Copenhagen, of which the first 
edition was published in 1666, enumerates, among other curiosities, a Dodo's head. He also 
gives a figure of the bird in pi. 13, f. 5, which however is merely a copy from that of Clusius 
(p. 12, su/pra). The following are his words : — 

" Num. 5 ist ein Kopff von einem frembden Vogel welchen Clusius Galium peregiinum, Nieren- 
bergius Cygnum cucullatum, die Hollander aber Walghvogel, vom Eckel den sie wegen des harten 
Fleisches machen sollen, nennen. Die Hollander sollen zu erst solclien Vogel aufi' der Insel Mauritius 
angetroffen haben ; sol auch keine Fliigel, sondern an dessen Stat zwo Pinnen haben, gleich wie die 
Emeu und Pinguinen. Clus. exot." — Olearius, Gottorfische Kunstkammer. 4to, Schleswig. ed. of 1674. 

' It has been supposed that this is the same leg as that described by Clusius {utpra, p. 16), but there are certain 
discrepancies in the measurements which render this doubtful. 


This specimen has been very recently recovered from oblivion, and is now one of the 
chief treasures of the Royal Museum at Copenhagen, to which I shall again refer. 

15. The latest known testimony as to the existence of Dodos in Mauritius is contained 
in a MS. in the British Museiun (Sloane MSS. 3668. Plut. cxi. F.) for a reference to which, 
as for many other valuable suggestions, I am indebted to J. Wolley, Esq. of Edinburgh, who 
has taken much interest in the history of the Dodo, and has liberally communicated the results 
of his researches. This document is entitled " A coppey of Mr. Beuj. Harry's Jomnall when he 
was cheif mate of the Shippe Berkley Castle, Captn. Wm. Talbot then Commander, on a 
voyage to the Coste and Bay, 1679, which voyage they wintered at the Maurrisshes." 

The Journal is little more than a ship's log, containing many rough observations, perhaps 
valuable, of a brilliant comet. They left Deptford 19th Nov. 1679, and on their return from 
India, being unable to weather the Cape of Good Hope, they determined to make for " the 
Marushes," the 4th June, 1681. They saw land on the 3d July, and on the 11th they began 
to build huts, and they had much labour in spreading their cargo out to dry : — 

" After all these turmoyles, and various accidents, wee the beginning 7ber. brought all to a period: 
one parte of our misery wass that that time wee designed for recreation wee were forct to impt. in 

" The a\Te whilst wee have been here hath been very temperate neither over hott nor over cold : 
itt hath been showery 3 or 4 Days sucksessively, and showery in the night, sometimes a Sea Brees httle 
wind morning and evenings. 

" Now having a little respitt I will make a little description of the Island, first of its Products then 
of itts parts : ffirst of winged and feathered ffowle the less passant, are Dodos whose JJlesh is very hard. 
a small sort of Gees, reasonably good Teele, Curleves, Pasca fflemingos, Turtle Doves, large Batts, many 
small Bii'des which are good. 

" The Dutch pleading a propriety to the Island because of their settlement have made us pay for 
goates Id per pound or \ piece of 8 per head, the which goates are butt reasonably good, these wild, as 
allso the Deer wliich are as large as I beheve any in the world, and as good fflesh in their seasons; for 
these 3 pie. of 8 per head. Bullocks large 6 pie. of 8 per head ; [that] ys for victuaUing, heer are many 
wild hoggs and land turtle which are very good, other small creators on the Land, as Scorpions and 
Musketoes, these in small numbers, Ratts and ffleys a multitude, Munkeys of various sorts. 

" In the woodes Eaboney, Box, Iron wood blacke and read, a false but not lasting fire, various 
sortes of other wood, though heavy yett good for fiering. 

" In ye Sea and River, green tortoise very good, Sliirkes, Doggs, Mulletts, Jackabeirs (butt nott 
good though some 70 lb). Breams, Pomfletts, Plaise, a ffishe like a Sahnond, and heer soe called but 
full of small Boaues forked, severall sortes of read fiish butt nott houlsome, various sortes of small ffish 
for the Pann, good oysters and Crabes, Ells large and good. 

" Herbage ffruite and Graine, ffrench or Cidney Beanes, Patatoes, saUating ; Piunplemuses, oranges, 
Jumboes, Waiter and musk "Melones, Sugar Cannes, Pumkines, Tobacco that Hellish weed, and many 
other tilings forgotten." 

Ch. L] of the dodo. 27 

Such then is the sum of the Historical Evidence which Me possess for the existeiice of 
this singular creatiu-e. In 1644 the Dutch fu'st colonized the island of Mauritius, and it is 
probable that these gigantic fowls, deprix'ed of flight, slow of foot, and useful for food, were 
speedily diminished in nmuber, and finally exterminated by the thoughtless rapacity of the 
early colonists. Their destruction would be further hastened, or might be mainly caused, by 
the Dogs, Cats, and Swine which accompany Man in his migrations, and are speedily natura- 
lized in the forests. To such animals the eggs and young of the Dodo and other birds would 
be a dainty treat ; and that this is no mere conjectm-e is proved by Leguat, who tells us, 

" Here, (in Mauritius,) are Hogs of the China kind These beasts do a great deal of 

damage to the inhabitants, by devouring all the young animals they can catch."— p. 170, Eng. ed. 

That the destruction of the Dodos was completed by 1693, may be inferred from the 
narrative of Leguat, who in that year remained several months in Mauritius, and enumerates 
its animal productions at some length, but makes no mention whatever of Dodos. He further 
says, " L'isle etait autrefois toute remplie d'Oyes et de Canards sauvages; de Poules d'eau, 
de Gelinottes, de Tortues de mer et de terre ; niais tout cela est devenii fort rare." This 
passage proves, that even m 1693, civilization had made great inroads on the fauna of 

In 1712 the Dutch evacuated Mam-itius, and the French colonized the island under the 
new name of Isle de France. This change in the popidation vdll account for the absence of 
any traditionary knowledge of so remarkable a bird among the later inhabitants. All subse- 
quent evidence is equally negative. Baron Grant resided in Mam'itius from 1740 to 1760 ; 
and his son, who compiled the "History of Mauritius" from his papers, states (p. 145*) that 
no trace of such a bird was to be found at that time. M. Morel, a French official who resided 
there previously to 1778, and whose attention seems to have been drawn to the subject by the 
judicious criticisms of Buffon (Hist. Ois. vokii. p. 73), tells us that the oldest inhabitants had no 
recollection of these creatures (Observations sur la Physique, 177S, vol. xii. p. 1.54). The late 
M. Bory de St. Vincent remained for some time in Mauritius and Bom-bon in 1801, and has 
left an excellent work on the physical features of those islands (Voyage dans les quatre prin- 
cipales iles des Mers d'AMque). He assures us (vol. ii. p. 306) that he made every possible 
enquiry respecting the Dodo and its alhes, without gaining the slightest information from the 
inhabitants on the subject. At a public dinner at the Mauritius in 181 6, several persons from 
70 to 90 years of age were present, who had no knowledge of such a bu'd from recollection or 
tradition (De BlainvUle in Nouv. Ann. Mus. vol.iv. p. 31). Mr. J. V. Thompson also resided 
for some years in Mauritius and Madagascar, previously to 1816, and he states that no more 
traces of the existence of the Dodo could then be found, than of the truth of the tale of Paul and 
Virginia, although a very general idea prevailed as to the reahty of both (Mag. Nat. Hist. 
ser. 1, vol.ii. p. 443). This Hst of negative witnesses may be closed with the late Mr. Telfair, 
a very active naturalist, whose researches were equally conclusive as to the non-existence of 
Dodos in Mauritius in modern times (Zool. Journ. vol. iii. p. 566). 



[Part I. 

Section II. — Pictorial Evidences — Picture in the British Museum — Roland Saveri/ s picture at the Hague ; 
his picture at Berlin ; his picture at Vienna — John Saveri/' s picture at Oxford. 

The next series of evidences to be adduced are those derived from contemporary paintings. 
We have seen that the narratives of the early voyagers are in several instances accompanied 
by rude delineations of Dodos, but besides these we possess certain oil paintings of this bird 
by artists of great merit, who apparently aimed only at correctly representing the object before 
them. All these pictures, except one, closely resemble each other, and though exhibiting 
slight variations, they seem to have been taken from one original design. They moreover 
agree sufficiently well with the engra\ings in the early voyages, to leave no doubt of their 
being intended for the same species of bird. Five of these paintings are now known to exist ; 
one of these is anonymous, three bear the name of Roland Savery, an eminent Dutch animal 
painter in the beginning of the 17th century, and one is by John Savery, the nephew of Roland. 

1 . The first of these paintings, and the best known, is that from which the figure of the 
Dodo iu all modern books of natural history has been copied. This picture was once the 

property of the artist, George Edwards, who in his work on Birds, vol. vi, pi. 294, tells us, 
" The original picture was drawn in Holland from the living bird, brought from St. Maurice's 

Ch. I.] ' OF THE DODO. 29 

Island in the East Indies, in the early times of the discovery of the Indies by the way of the 
Cape of Good Hope. It was the property of the late Su- H. Sloane to the time of his death, 
and afterwards becoming my property I deposited it in the British ]\Iuseum as a great curio- 
sity. The above history of the picture I had from Sir H. Sloane and the late Dr. INIortimer, 
secretary to the Royal Society." This picture is stiU preserved in the British Museum, and 
may be seen in the Bird Gallery along with the Dodo's foot, to be hereafter described. It repre- 
sents the Dodo surrounded by American Maccaws, Ducks, and other birds, depicted with great 
exactness and attention to details. Judging from the animated and natural expression which 
the artist has introduced, I am quite disposed to believe the assertion of Edwards, that it was 
painted from life. Unfortunately there is neither name nor date upon the picture ; but from 
the style of execution, and the identity of the design with the pictures next to be noticed, it 
may be attributed to one of the two Saverys. As the other birds in this picture are the size 
of life, the Dodo is probably represented of its true magnitude, although it must have been a 
rather larger specimen than either of those whose skulls are now extant. 

The engraving on the opposite page was made under Mr. Broderip's superintendance, 
to illustrate his treatise in the Penny Cyclopaedia, and as it is an accurately reduced copy of 
the painting in question, I have obtained the permission of Messrs. Clowes to introduce 
it here. 

2. In the Royal Collection at the Hague is a painting by Roland Savery, which is pro- 
nounced by Houbracken (Groote Schouburgh der Nederlantsche Konstschilders en Schilder- 
essen, Hague, 1753, vol. i. p. 68,) to be one of that master's cJtpf d' oeuvres} It represents 
Orpheus charming the animal creation with his music, and among innumerable birds and 
beasts, which are depicted with the utmost accuracy, we see the clumsy Dodo spell-bound by 
the strains of the Lyric Bard. All the other animals in this composition are exact and almost 
mechanical copies of nature, without the smallest indication of pictorial licence ; we cannot 
therefore suppose that the artist would have marred the consistency of his design by intro- 
ducing a fabulous or even an exaggerated representation. The Dodo, like all the other figures, 
must have been copied from carefid sketches made either by the artist himself or by persons 
in whom he could confide. Such were my own impressions on examining this painting in 
1845, and Professor Owen, who was the first to call the attention of Naturalists to it, expresses 
a similar opinion. 

" WHst at the Hague," he says, "in the summer of 1838, 1 was much struck with the mdnuteness 
and accuracy with which the exotic species of animals had been painted by Savery and Breughel, in 
such subjects as Orpheus charming the beasts, frc, in which scope was allowed for grouping together 
a great variety of animals. Understanding that the celebrated menagerie of Prince Maiuice had afforded 
the living models to these artists, I sat down one day before Savery's Orpheus and the Beasts, to make a 

' Dr. Hamel, in his recently published work entitled 'Tradescant der Aeltere,' p. 170, states that this picture 
was painted in 1638, but he has probably no other authority than the conjecture that the liird she\\Ti that year in 
London served as Savery's model. 


list of the species which the picture sufficiently evinced that the artist had had the opportunity to study 
alive. Judge of my surprise and pleasure in detecting in a dark corner of the picture (which is badly 
hung between two windows) the Dodo, beautifully finished^ shoAving for example, though but three 
inches long, the auricular circle of feathers, the scutation of the tarsi, and the loose strnctm^e of the 
caudal plumes. In the number and proportions of the toes, and in general form, it accords with 
Edwards's oil painting in the British Museum ; and I conclude that the miniature must have been copied 
from the study of a hving bu-d, wdiich, it is most probable, formed part of the Mam-itian menagerie. 
The bird is standing in profile with a lizard at its feet. Not any of the Dutch naturalists to whom I 
apphed for information respecting the picture, the artist, and his subject, seemed to be aware of the 
existence of this evidence of the Dodo in the Hague collection." — Peimy Cyclopaedia, vol. xxiii. p. 143. 

3. Shortly after visiting the Hague in 1845, I made a search in the Royal Gallery at 
Berlin, which contains several of Roland Savery's highly finished paintings. Among them I 
found one which represents numerous animals in Paradise, one of which is a Dodo, of about 
the same size and in nearly the same attitude as the figure last mentioned. But what renders 
this pictiu-e peculiarly interesting is, that it affords us a date, the words " Roelandt Savery 
fe. 1626," being painted in one corner. (See Frontispiece.) As Roland Savery was born in 
1576, he was 23 years old when Van Neck's expedition returned to Holland; and as we are 
told by De Bry that the Dutch brought home a Dodo on that occasion, it is possible enough 
that Savery may have taken the portrait of this individual, and that the design thus made may 
have been copied by himself and by his nephew John in their later pictures. Or if we feel 
disposed (for the reasons given at p. 11, supra) to doubt the correctness of De Bry's state- 
ment, we may yet suppose, with Professor Owen, that the menagerie of Prince Maurice supplied 
the living prototy])e for Savery's pencil. This opinion is corroborated by the tradition recorded 
by Edwards, that the pictm-e in the British Museum was drawn in Holland from the living 
bu'd. It is far more probable than the conjecture of Dr. Hamel, (Bull. Ac. Petersb. vol. v. 
p. 317) that Savery's pictures were copied from the Dodo exhibited in London, as this indivi- 
dual must in that case have lived in captivity at least 12 years, from 1626 to 1638. 

4. The present sheet was just rescued fi'om the printer in time to announce an important 
addition to our Pictorial Evidence. Dr. J. J. de Tschudi, the eminent Peruvian traveller, 
hearing that this work was in preparation, has had the kindness to transmit to me an exact 
copy of a figm-e of the Dodo by Roland Savery, which forms part of a picture in the imperial 
collection of the Bellvedere at Vienna, and which is here introduced. (Plate HI.) Dr. Tschudi 
states that this picture is dated 1628 ; two years later than the Berlin one. There are two 
circumstances which give an especial interest to this painting. First, the novelty of attitude 
in the Dodo, exhibiting an activity of character which corroborates the supposition that the 
artist had a living model before him, and contrasting strongly with the aspect of passive 
stohdity in the other pictures. And, secondly, the Dodo is represented as watching, appa- 
rently with hungry looks, the merry wrigghngs of an eel in the water ! Are we hence to 
infer that the Dodo fed upon eels ? The advocates of the Raptorial affinities of the Dodo, 


Plate Ij'I jo^ 30. 



Fac- simile of Saverys picture of the 

m die Bellvedere at Vienna . 

Ch.L] of the dodo. 31 

of whom we shall soon speak, will doubtless reply in the affirmative, but as I hope shortly 
to demonstrate that it belongs to a family of birds, all the other members of which are 
frugivorous, I can only regard the introduction of the eel as a pictorial license. In this, as 
in all his other paintings, Savery brought into juxta-position animals from all countries, 
without regarding geographical distribution. His delineations of birds and beasts were 
wonderfully exact, but his knowledge of natural history probably went no further, and 
although the Dodo is certainly looking at the eel, yet we have no proof that he is going to 
eat it. The mere collocation of animals in an artistic composition, cannot be accepted as 
evidence against the positive truths revealed by Comparative Anatomy. 

5. The last painting which I have to mention is the one presented to the Ashmolean 
Museum at Oxford in 1813, by W. H. Darby, Esq., but of whose previous history nothing is 
known. It is painted by John Savery, the nephew of Roland, and bears the date of 1651. 
It appears to be copied from the same original design as the three first pictures above 
referred to, but a remarkable feature in it is its colossal scale, the Dodo standing about 3 feet 
6 inches high, and being nearly double the size which the picture in the British Museum, the 
description of eye-witnesses, and the existing remains warrant us in attributing to the bird. 
It is difficult to assign a motive to the artist for thus magnifying an object already sufficiently 
uncouth in appearance. Were it not for the discrepancy of dates, I should have conjectured 
that this was the identical " picture of a strange fowle hong out upon a cloth," which attracted 
the notice of Sir Hamon Lestrange and his friends as they " walked London streets" in 1638; 
the delineations used by showmen being in general more remarkable for attractiveness than 

Section III. — Real or Anatomical evidences — Dodo's foot in British Museum — Head and foot at Oxford — 
Head at Copenhagen — Probability of finding further remains in Mauritius — Figure of Dodo as deduced 
from evidence — Non-development of certain organs no proof of imperfection. 

I COME lastly to speak of the evidence afforded us by the few imperfect remains of this extra- 
ordinary bird which have come down to us. Portions of probably three distinct individuals 
of the Dodo are now extant in as many public museums. It is remarkable, as proving the 
interest which the discovery of the Dodo excited in Europe, that each of these three specimens 
is specially referred to in museum catalogues printed in the 17th century. 

1 . The first of these is the Dodo's leg, or rather foot, mentioned, as before stated, liy 
Hubert in 1665, and by Grew in 1681. From the cabinet of the Royal Society it was trans- 
ferred early in the last centm-y to the British Museum, where it is now preserved.' It appears 

* M. de Blainville inadvertently states, that " tHs leg passed into the British Museum at the end of the last 
or beginning of the present centmy, when the Museum was established through the influence of Sir J. Banks." 
(Nouv. Ann. Mus. H. N. vol. iv. p. 15). A little more attention to names, dates, and such miuutise, would have 
added to the value of this memoir. 



to have attracted no further notice till 1793, when Dr. Shaw gave a figure of it in his 
Naturahsts' Miscellany, pi. 143. This foot seems to have belonged to a somewhat larger 
individual than the Ashmolean specimen, and from its excellent preservation exhibits the 
external characters of the tarsus and toes in a very interesting manner. (See Plate VI.) 

2. The stuffed specimen of the Dodo mentioned in the catalogue of Tradescant's Museum, 
1656, was bequeathed with the rest of his curiosities to Elias Ashmole, the munificent founder 
of the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford. Here it remained in an entire, if not a very perfect 
state, till 1755, when the Vice-Chancellor and the other Trustees, to whose guardianship the 
worthy Ashmole had confided his treasures, came in an unlucky hour to make their annual 
visitation of the Museum. In those days Oxford presented the still existing anomaly of a 
University, in which Zoology was not publicly taught as a science ; the Royal Society had long 
removed to the metropolis, the Ashmolean Society was as yet unborn, and the Taylor Institu- 
tion had not opened a door to continental literature. The literary and scientific ardour which 
Lister, Plott, Aubrey, Ashmole, Wood, Llhwyd, and others had awakened in the 17th century 
had now subsided, and the University seems to have relapsed into the scholastic torpor of the 
middle ages. We need not therefore wonder at the fate which befel the L.\st or the Dodos. 
This unhappy specimen, then at least a century old, had, it appears, become decayed by time 
and neglect ; and according to a record now extant, was, with many others, " ordered to be 
removed at a meeting of a majority of the visitors."^ On this fatal decree, Mr. Lyell appro- 
priately remarks (and Mr. Broderip will forgive my re-quoting the passage) : — 

" Some liave complained that inscriptions on tombstones convey no general information except that 
individuals were born and died — accidents which happen alike to all men. But the death of a species 
is so remarkable an event in natural history, that it deserves commemoration ; and it is with no smi\ll 
interest that we learn from the archives of the University of Oxford the exact day and year when the 
remains of the last specimen of the Dodo, wliich had been permitted to rot in the Ashmolean Museum, 
were cast away. The rehcs we are told were " a Museo subducta, annuentibus Vice-cancellario aliisque 
Curatoribus, ad ea kistranda convocatis, die Januarii 8vo, a.d. 1755." 

By a lucky accident, however, a small portion of this last descendant of an ancient race 
escaped the clutches of the destroyer. The head and one of the feet were saved from the 
flames, and are still preserved in the Ashmolean Museum. The head is figured in Plate V., 
and is in tolerable preservation, exhibiting the remarkable form of the beak and nostrils, 
the bare skin of the face, and the partially feathered occiput which the old authors com- 
pared to a hood. The eyes still remain dried within the sockets, but the corneous extremity 
of the beak has perished, so that it scarcely exhibits that strongly hooked termination so 
conspicuous in all the original portraits. The deep transverse grooves are also visible, 
though less developed than in the paintings, from which, and from its inferior size we may 
infer it to have been a female specimen. The scientific value of this specimen has lately been 

- For particulars of this act of well meant, but too sweeping, reform, see Mi'. J. Duncan's paper in the Zoolo- 
gical Journal, vol. iii. p. 559. 

Ch. I.] OF THE DODO. 33 

very greatly increased by the careful dissection which Dr. Acland, the Lecturer in Anatomy, 
has made of one side of the cranium.' By dividing the skin down the mesial line, and 
removing it from the left side, the entire osteological structure of this extraordinary skull is 
exposed to view, while on the other side of the head the external covering remains un- 
distm-bed. See Plates VIII. and IX. 

The foot, which accompanies this interesting cranium, was formerly covered with decom- 
posed integuments, which presented few external characters. These have recently been 
removed by Dr. Kidd, the Professor of Medicine, who has made an interesting preparation of 
the osseous and tendinous structures, and exhibited some remarkable characters to which I 
shall presently advert. 

3. I have now to speak of the cranium, mentioned by Olearius as being, in 1666, in the 
Gottorf Museum at Copenhagen. This specimen, after being forgotten for nearly two 
centuries, was very lately discovered by Professor C. Reinhardt (see Kr5yer's Tidskrift, vol.iv. 
p. 71 , and Lehmann in Nov. Act. Ac. Leop. Car. vol. xxi. p. 491), amongst a heap of venerable 
rubbish, and is now in the public museum at Copenhagen, where, two years ago, I had an 
opportunity of examining it. AU the soft parts are removed, and it exhibits the same 
important osteological characters which have been recently brought to hght in the Oxford 
head. It is, however, less perfect, the base of the occiput being removed. It is about half 
an inch shorter than the Ashmolean specimen, and proportionably smaller. 

These are the only known fragments which are ascertained to be genuine relics of the 
Dodo. Yet it cannot be doubted that if a judicious series of researches were made in the 
caves and supei-ficial deposits of the island of Maiuitius, many more osseous remains might be 
disinterred, and possibly the entire skeleton might be reconstructed. I rejoice to find, by a 
recent letter from G. C. Cuninghame, Esq. to Sn W. C. Trevelyan, that this problem has 
attracted the attention of the Natural History Society of Mauritius, who propose making 
excavations for this especial object. 

Let us now endeavour to combine into one view the results of the historical, pictorial, and 
anatomical data which we possess respecting the Dodo. We must figiu-e it to ourselves as a 
massive clumsy bu'd, ungraceful in its form, and with a slow waddling motion. We cannot 
form a better idea of it than by imagining a young Duck or Gosling enlarged to the dimen- 
sions of a Swan. It affords one of those cases, of which we have many examples in Zoology, 
where a species, or a part of the organs in a species, remains permanently in an undeveloped 
or infantine state. Such a condition has reference to peculiarities in the mode of Ufe of the 
animal, which render certain organs unnecessary, and they therefore are retained through life 

' Zoologists are indebted to P. B. Duncan, Esq., Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, who liberally permitted 
this important dissection of a unique specimen to take place, and I have great pleasure also in recording that it 
was performed " annuentibus Vice-cancellario aliisque Curatoribus," A.D. 1847. 


in an imperfect state, instead of attaining that fully developed condition which marks the 
mature age of the generality of animals. The Greenland AVhale, for instance, may be called 
■A permanent sucUing ; having no occasion for teeth, the teeth never penetrate the gums, though 
in youth they are distinctly traceable in the dental groove of the jaws. The Proteus, again, 
is a permanent tadpole ; destined to inhabit the waters which fill subterranean caverns, the gills 
which in other Batrachian Reptiles are cast off as the animal approaches maturity, are here 
retained tlirouo-h hfe, while the eyes are mere subcutaneous specks, incapable of contributing to 
the sense of vision. And lastly (not to multiply examples), the Dodo is (or rather was) a 
permanent nestling, clothed with down instead of feathers, and with the wings and tail so short 
and feeble, as to be utterly unsubservient to flight.^ 

It may appear at fkst sight difficult to account for the presence of organs which are prac- 
tically useless. Why, it may be asked, does the Whale possess the germs of teeth which are 
never used for mastication ? Why has the Proteus eyes when he is especially created to dwell 
in darkness ? and why was the Dodo endowed with wings at all, when those wings were 
useless for locomotion. ? This question is too wide and too deep to plunge into at present ; I 
will merely observe, that these apparently anomalous facts are really the indications of laws 
which the Creator has been pleased to foUow in the construction of organized beings ; they are 
inscriptions in an unknown hieroglyphic, which we are quite sure mean something, but of 
which we have scarcely begun to master the alphabet. There appear, however, reasonable 
o-rounds for believing that the Creator has assigned to each class of animals a definite type or 
structure from which He has never departed, even in the most exceptional or eccentric modifi- 
cations of form. Thus, if we suppose, for instance, that the abstract idea of a Mammal imphed 
the presence of teeth, the idea of a Vertebrate the presence of eyes, and the idea of a Bird the 
presence of wings, we may then comprehend why in the Whale, the Proteus, and the Dodo, 
these organs are merely suppressed, and not wholly annihilated. 

And let us beware of attributing anything like imperfection to these anomalous or- 
ganisms, however deficient they may be in those complicated structures which we so much 
admu"e in other creatures. Each animal and plant has received its peculiar organization for 
the purpose, not of exciting the admiration of other beings, but of sustaining its own existence. 
Its perfection, therefore, consists, not in the number or complication of its organs, but in the 
adaptation of its whole structure to the external circumstances in which it is destined to live. 
And in this point of view we shall find that every department of the organic creation is 
equally perfect ; the humblest animalcule, or the simplest conferva, being as completely or- 
ganized with reference to its appropriate habitat, and its destined functions, as Man himself, 
who claims to be lord of all. Such a view of the creation is surely more philosophical than 

' Our efforts to realize ttis extinct creatm-e will be assisted by the skill of Ms. Jenssen, a sculptor at Copen- 
hagen, who has made, or is making, plaster casts of the Dodo, the size of life, and coloured from Savery's pictures 
(Bull. Phys. Ac. Petersb. vol. v. p 318). We may hope that some examples of this work of art will soon reach 

Ch. I.] OF THE DODO. 35 

the crude and profane ideas entertained by Buffon and his disciples, one of whom calls the 
Dodo " un oiseau bizarre, dont toutes les parties portaient le caractcre d'une conception 
manquee." He fancies that this imperfection was the result of the youthful impatience of the 
newly-formed volcanic islands which gave birth to the Dodo, and imphes that a steady old 
continent would have produced a much better article (Bory St. Vincent, Voy. aux Isles des 
Mers d' Afrique. vol. ii. p. 305. vol. iii. p. 169). 

Section IV. — Affinities of the Dodo — Not allied to the Grallatorial or Natatorial orders ; nor to the 
Rasores ; nor to the Raptores — Opinions of Vigors ; of Be Blainville ; of La Fresnaj/e ; of Gould; 
of Gray ; of Broderip ; of Owen — Affinity of the Bodo to the Pigeons, proved by numerous agreements 
of structure. 

We now approach the most difficult part of oiu- subject, viz., to determine, from such im- 
perfect data as history and anatomy present, the affinities of the Dodo to other generic forms 
in the class of Birds. Now it is evident, at first sight, that the Dodo is a very anomalous 
and exceptional animal ; in the language of systematists, it forms a very isolated genus, far 
removed from the large groups in which the more prevalent arrangements of ornithic struc- 
ture are displayed ; just as its native island is intermediate between Asia and Africa, and can 
hardly be referred to either continent. We must not, therefore, expect to discover any very 
close or satisfactory affinities between the Dodo and other birds. All that we can do is to 
seek for those other generic forms to which, in the majority, or rather the preponderance of 
its characters, it makes the nearest approach. 

The most prominent characteristic of the Dodo is manifestly its inability to fly, in con- 
sequence of the shortness of its wings. This is an exceptional peculiarity which occurs in 
only three families of existing birds, — the Penguins, the Auks, and the Ostriches. It is, 
therefore, natural to inquire whether the imperfectly developed wings of the Dodo indicate an 
affinity to any of these families. Now the Penguins are the most completely aquatic of all 
birds, their feathers are almost reduced into the condition of scales, and their wings are 
practically converted into fins, while the palmated and plautigi-ade feet at once prove their 
entire discoimection from the type of the Dodo. The Auks, of which a single species, AIca 
impennis, has the wings too short for flight, while the other species of the group are volatile, 
represent geographically in the northern hemisphere, the Penguins of the southern, and are 
equally remote from the bird before us. The Struthious bkds make a somewhat nearer 
approach to the Dodo, in the rudimental natm-e of their plumage, but their long legs and 
neck, the comparatively feeble beak, the absence, or very slight development, of the hallux, and 
numerous other peculiarities, prove them to be modifications of the Grallatorial order, and by 
no means nearly allied to the Dodo. The apparently similar texture of plumage in the Ostriches 
and the Dodo (so far as we are acquainted with the latter), does not necessarily indicate any 
affinity ; for a terrestrial bird of whatever order, if deprived of the means of flight, would, of 


36 ■ AFFINITIES [Part I. 

course, have its feathers so modified as to serve only as a clothing to the skin, and they 
would no longer exhibit that peculiar compactness, and those beautiful mechanical arrange- 
ments which are seen in the feathers of volatile bu-ds. 

If the Dodo, then, be neither a Penguin, an Auk, nor an Ostrich, it must evidently be 
either an entirely unique and independent organization, representing in its own person a 
whole order of birds, or (which is far more probable) it must be an exceptional form of some 
other group, to which it stands in the same relation as the Ostriches to the Bustards, the 
Penguins to the Divers, or the AIca impemiis to the other genera of Alcidae. 

We have seen that the Dodo can be referred neither to the Grallatorial nor Natatorial 
orders. Its great bulk, and the vast strength and curvature of the beak, seem equally to 
remove it from the Insessores, properly so called. There apparently remain, therefore, only 
the Galhnaceous and Raptoinal orders with which we can compare it. 

Before stating my own views of this question, I will give a brief notice of the opinions 
of some recent naturalists, whose criticisms are philosophical in spuit, if not correct in result. 
The arrangements of earlier systematists may be omitted, as being too crude and vague to be 
worth recording. 

Mr. Vigors, in his elaborate paper on the " Affinities of Birds," in the Linnaean Transac- 
tions,' vol. xiv. p. 484, referred the Dodo to the Gallinaceous order, and considered it to be 
intermediate between the Stridldonida and the genus Crax. His words are as follows : — 

" Tlie bird in question, from every account which we have of its economy, and from the appear- 
ance of its head and foot, is decidedly gallinaceous ; and from the insufficiency of its wings for tlie 
purposes of flight, it may witli equal certainty be pronounced to be of the Stndhmis structure, and 
referable to the present family {StndJiionida;). But the foot has a strong liind toe, and, with the 
exception of its being more robust, — in wliich character it stiU adheres to the StrntJrionida, — it cor- 
responds exactly with the foot of the Linnaean genus Crax, that commences the succeeding family. 
The bu'd thus becomes osculant, and forms a strong point of junction between these two conterminous 
groups, which thougli evidently approacliing each other in general points of similitude, would not 
exliibit that intimate bond of connection which we have seen to prevail almost uniformly throughout 
the neighbouring subdivisions of nature, were it not for the intervention of this important genus." 

M. De Blainville, in the Nouvelles Annales du Museum d'Histou-e Naturelle, vol. iv. 
p. 24, objects to this arrangement on the following grounds -. 1st, the form of the beak, in which 
the strength, the terminal hook, the nudity of the base, the width of the gape, remind us (as he 
says) of a rapacious rather than of a granivorous bii'd ; 2ndly, the position of the nostrils, which 
are not provided with an incumbent scale ; 3rdly, the strength and curvature of the claws ; 
4thly, the strength and shortness of the legs ; 5thly, the squamous covering of the tarsi ; 6thly, 
the short and woolly plumage of the head and neck ; 7thly, the alleged toughness and bad 
taste of the flesh ; and 8thly, the absence of metatarsal spines. Ho consequently concludes 

' M. De Blainville, who seems to be acquainted with this valuable paper by Mr. Vigors, only from a brief 
notice of it in Mr. Duncan's " Memou- ou the Dodo," in the Zoological Journal, vol. iii. p. 558, tells us that it is 
written by " un auteur anonyme, nuiis que je crois etre M. Macleay." 

Ch. I.] OF THE DODO. 37 

that the Dodo is a Raptorial bird, allied to the Vultures, in proof of which he adduces : 
1, the eyes placed in the smooth area of the beak, as in Catluaies ; 2, the oval nostrils placed 
very forward on the beak, and without incumbent scale ; 3, the form, size, and colom- of 
the beak, resembling those of Sarcorhamphns ; 4, the form of the cranium, its "width between 
the orbits, its flattening on the sinciput, as in the last-named Vulture ; 5, the two caruncular 
folds at the base of the curved portion of the beak, somewhat as in SarcorhatHphus ; 6, the 
hood of skin like that of Cathaiies ; 7, the almost naked neck, of a greenish colour ; S, the 
form, number, and arrangement of the toes, and the strength and cm-vature of the claws ; 
9, the squamose system of the tarsi and toes ; 10, the crop at the base of the neck and 
the muscular stomach, which are common, as he says, to the two orders ; and 1 1 , the absence 
of the metatarsal spine. 

Notwithstanding these apparent agreements with the Rapacious order, M. de Blainville 
admits that the legs of the Dodo are much shorter and stronger than in any known Vulture ; 
that the toes are not connected, as in the Vultures, by a membrane ; and that the inability 
to fly appears even a greater anomaly in a rapacious, than in a gallinaceous bird. These 
difficulties, however, do not prevent him from giving his vote in favom' of the Raptorial 
affinities of the Dodo. 

The Baron de la Fresnaye, in an outline of his classification of the Bh'ds of Prey, adopts 
M. de Blainville's views, and makes the Didbice the fost, or loM^est, sub-family of the 
Fidfiiridce (Revue Zoologique, 1839, p. 193). In accordance with this idea, he conjectures 
that the Dodo inhabited the sea-coasts, and fed upon the remains of Crustacea, Mollusca, 
and other offal cast up by the waves. 

Mr. Gould, from a consideration of the several characters above enumerated, and 
especially the compression of the beak and nudity of the face, arrived at the same conclusion 
as M. de Blainville (Nouv. Ann. ^lus. Hist. Nat. vol. iv. p. 34). 

Mr. J. E. Gray has expressed the opinion that the bird represented in the pictm-es of the 
Dodo was made up artificially by joining the head of a bird of prey approaching the Vultures, 
if not belonging to that family, to the legs of a Gallinaceous bird. But, as Mr. Broderip well 
remarks, " if this be granted, see what we have to deal with. We have then two species, 
which are either extinct, or have escaped the researches of all zoologists, to account for ; one, 
a bird of prey, to judge from its bill, larger than the Condor ; the other, a Gallinaceous bird, 
whose pillar-like legs must have supported an enormous body." Mr. Gray's opinion is based 
on the following grounds -. — 

" 1. The base of the bill is enveloped in a cere, as may be seen in the cast, where the folds of the 
cere are distinctly exhibitedj esjieciaUy over the back of tlie nostrOs. The cere is only found in the 
Raptorial birds. 

" 2. The nostrils are placed exactly in front of the cere, as they are in the other Raptores ; they 
are oval and nearly erect, as they are in the true Vultures, and in that genus alone, and not longitu- 
dinal as they are in the Cathartes, all the Gallinaceous Lmh, Grallatores, and Natatores; and they are 
naked, and covered with an arched scale, as is the case in all the Gallinaceci. 


" 3. In Edwards's picture the bill is represented as much hooked (like the Raptores) at the tip ; 
a character which unfortunately cannot be verified on the Oxford head, as that specimen is destitute of 
the horny sheath of the bill, and only shows the form of the bony core. 

" With regard to the size of the bill, it is to be observed that this part varies greatly in the difl'e- 
reut species of Vultures, indeed so much so that there is no reason to believe that the bird of the 
Oxford head was much larger than some of the known Vultures. 

" With rc^rd to the foot, it has all the character of that of the Gallinaceons birds, and differs 
from all the Vultures in the shortness of the middle toe, the form of the leg, and the bluntness of the 
claws." (Penny Cyclopaedia, vol. ix. p. 55.) 

Mr. Broderip, on the other hand, after a full discussion of the question, sums it up as 
follows : — 

" If the picture in the British Museum and the cut in Bontius be faitliful representations of a 
creature then living, to make such a bird a bird of prey — a Vulture, in the ordinary acceptation of the 
term— would be to set all the usual laws of ada^jtation at defiance. A Vulture without wings ! How 
was it to be fed ? And not only without wirigs, but necessarily slow and heavy \n progression on its 
clumsy feet. The Vultunda: are, as we know, among the most active agents for removing the decom- 
posing animal remains in tropical and intertropical climates, and they are provided with a prodigal 
development of wing to waft them speedily to the spot tainted by the corrupt incumbrance. But no 
such powers of wing would be required by a bird appointed to clear away the decaying and decomposing 
masses of a luxm'iant tropical vegetation— a kind of Vulture for vegetable impurities, so to speak, — and 
such an office would not be by any means inconsistent with comparative slowness of pedestrian motion." 

Professor Owen has lately made a more minute examination of the remains preserved 
at Oxford than was in the power of M. de Blainville, who was only acquainted with these 
relics through the medium of drawings and casts. The former was further aided by 
the recent dissection of the foot, made by Dr. Kidd, and has given us the result of his 
observations in a memoir published in 1845, in the Transactions of the Zoological Society, 
vol. iii. p. 331. Mr. Owen remarks, that the Dodo differs from all Raptorial birds "in the 
greater elevation of the frontal bones above the cerebral hemispheres, in the sudden sinking 
of the interorbital and nasal region of the forehead, in the rapid compression of the beak 
anterior to the orbits, in the elongation of the compressed mandibles, and in the depth and 
direction of the sloping symphysis of the lower jaw." He further adds that the eyes are 
smaller in proportion, and the nostrils more in advance and lower down than in the VuUuridcB. 

The arguments adduced by Professor Owen in favour of its affinity to the Vulttu-es, 
from a comparison of the bones of the foot with those of the common Cock, Crax, and 
other GallincB, on the one hand, and of the Vulture and Eagle on the other, will be stated at 
length in Part II. of this work. He concludes as follows : — 

" Upon the w'hole, then, the Raptorial character prevails most in the structure of the foot, as in 
the general form of the beak of the Dodo, and the present limited amount of our anatomical knowledge 
of the extinct terrestial bird of the Mauritius supports the conclusion that it is an extremely modified 
form of the Raptorial order. Devoid of the power of flight, it could have had small chance of obtaining 

Ch.L] of the dodo. 39 

food by prejdng upou the members of its own class ; and if it did not exclusively subsist on dead and 
decaying organized matter, it most probably restricted its attacks to the class of Reptiles and to the 
littoral Fishes, Crustacea, &c., which its well-developed back-toe and claw would enable it to seize and 
hold with a firm gripe." 

It is however evident from the many counter-arguments which both De Blainville and 
Owen have with great impartiality adduced, that their conchisions as to the Raptorial 
affinities of the Dodo are far from being absolutely demonstrated. If there are objections 
to the GaOinaceous hypothesis, there are at least as many to the Raptorial one, and the 
systematic zoologist finds no more satisfaction in the one conclusion than in the other. If 
however we look a little further into the field of ornithic creation, we shall find a family of 
birds ready to claim relationship with this pedestrian outcast, and to admit him among their 

The various zoologists who have hitherto attempted the classification of the Dodo, appear 
to have been unconsciously influenced by its colossal stature, and they consequently compared 
it only with birds of large size, like the Ostrich, the Vulture, or the Albatross. But although 
each zoological group is characterized by certain limits of magnitude, yet the range between 
those limits is often very great, and where the characters of structure in two organisms essen- 
tially correspond, no amount of diversity in mere size ought to justify their separation. It 
is by overcoming this prejudice, as to the importance of size in classification, that the Mennra, 
e. g., has been recently removed from the Rasores to its true place among the Insessores, and 
I must now call upon zoologists to make a similar concession in regard to the Dodo. 

The extensive group of Columbidce, or Pigeons, is very isolated in character, and though 
probably intermediate between the Insessorial and Gallinaceous orders, can with difficulty 
be referred to either. In this group we find some genera that live wholly in trees, others 
which are entirely terrestrial, while the majority, of which the common Wood-Pigeon is an 
instance, combine both these modes of life. But the main characteristic of all is then- diet, 
composed almost exclusively of the seeds of various plants and trees. We accordingly find 
much diversity in the forms of their beaks, according to the size and mechanical structure of 
the seeds on which each genus is destined to live. Those which feed on cereal grains and 
the seeds of small grasses and other plants, like the Common Pigeon and Turtle-dove, have 
the beak considerably elongated, feeble, and slender. But in tropical countries there are 
several groups of Pigeons called Nutmeg-eaters and Trerons, which feed on the large fruits 
and berries of various kinds of palms, fig, nutmeg, and other trees. These birds, and 
especially those of the genus Treron [Vinago of Cuvier), have the beak much stouter than 
other Pigeons, the corneous portion being strongly arched and compressed, so as greatly to 
resemble the structure of certain Rapacious birds, especially of the Vulturine family. 

Tliis Raptorial form of beak is carried to the greatest extent in the genus Biduncuhis, a 
very singular bhd of the Samoan Islands in the Pacific Ocean (see plate VII. f. 1). Very 
little is yet known of its habits, but Mr. Stair, a missionary recently returned from 



those islands, has reported that the bird feeds upon bulbous roots. Its first discoverer, 
Mr. Titian Peale, an American natm-alist (whose account is, I beheve, still unpublished), 
saw something in its form or habits that reminded him of the Dodo, and hence its generic 
name. Sh- W. Jardine, who first described the bird, under the name of Gnathodon strigi- 
rostris, in the Annals of Natiu-al History, vol. xvi. p. 175, referred it conjecturally to the 
Megapodidm, though he recognised in it several dove-like characters. And Mr. Gould, who 
has eiven two figures of it in his Birds of Australia, Part 22, pronounces that the bird 
approaches nearest to the Pigeons. We shall soon see that the Bidine and Columbine 
hypotheses, though apparently incongruous, resolve themselves (as often happens) into one 

Although certain genera of Columbidte are thus seen to assume a form of beak resembling 
that of the Raptores, yet no two groups in the same class can be more opposed in habits and 
affinities than the " feroces Aquilse " and " imbefies Columbse." It is interesting, however, 
to observe that mechanical strength, whether for the devouring of animal or vegetable 
substances, is obtained in both cases by a similarity of structure. 

If now we regard the Dodo as an extreme modification, not of the Vultures, but of these 
Vulture-like frugivorous pigeons, we shall, I think, class it in a group whose characters are far 
more consistent with what we know of its structure and habits. There is no a priori reason why 
a Pigeon should not be so modified, in conformity with external circumstances, as to be inca- 
pable of flight, just as we see a GraUatorial bkd modified into an Ostrich, and a Diver into 
a Penguin. Now we are told that Mauritius, an island forty miles in length and about one 
hundred miles from the nearest land, was, when discovered, clothed with dense forests of palms 
and various other trees. A bud adapted to feed on the fruits produced by these forests 
would, in that equable climate, have no occasion to migrate to distant lands ; it would revel in 
the perpetual luxmiance of tropical vegetation, and would have but little need of locomotion. 
Why then should it have the means of flying ? Such a bird might wander from tree to tree, 
tearing with its powerful beak the fruits which strewed the ground, and digesting their stony 
kernels with its powerful gizzard, enjoying tranquilhty and abundance, until the arrival of 
Man destroyed the balance of Animal Life, and put a term to its existence. Such, in my 
opinion, was the Dodo, a colossal, brevipennate, frugivorous Pigeon.' 

The first idea of referring the Dodo to the neighbourhood of the Pigeons, originated 
with Professor J. T. Reinhardt of Copenhagen, the discoverer of the cranium in the Gottorf 
Museum. When I was at Copenhagen in 1845, Professor Reinhardt was then absent on a 

' Mr. E. Blytli, in an excellent treatise on the Columbidce (Journ. As. Soc. Beng. vol. xiv. p. 858, and Ann. Nat. 
Hist. vol. xix. p. 99), speaking of the Gourince or Ground Pigeons, says : " Some much resemble Partridges in their 
mode of life ; * * * * other genera are completely sylvan in their abode, feeding on the ground, more especially 
on fallen fruits and berries. Such are the magnificent Go(/ras of the Moluccas and New Guinea, * * * * and 
the elegant hackled Ground Pigeons {Calcenas), one of which abounds in the forests of the Malay Peninsula, and in 
the Nicobar, Andaman, and Cocos Isles." 

Ch. L] of the dodo. 41 

voyage round the world, but I was orally informed that he considered the Dodo to be inter- 
mediate between the Pigeons and the Galliuaceous birds. On subsequently examining the 
remains which Ave possess in Britain, I soon saw reasons for classing this bird even nearer 
to the Pigeons than I then understood it to be placed by Professor Reinhardt. This gentle- 
man, however, has lately visited London on his return from his distant voyage, and has 
informed me that, before he left Denmark in 1845, he had pointed out, in his letters to 
several Swedish and Danish zoologists, "the striking affinity which exists between this 
extinct bird and the Pigeons, especially the Trerons." 

I wUl now briefly notice the points of agreement in the structure of the Dodo, and in 
that of the Pigeons, which serve to substantiate the above hypothesis. 

A. External characters. — 1 . The whole group of Pigeons are remarkable for having the corneous 
portion of the beak very short, the bas;il portion long, slender, and covered with a soft naked skin, all 
wliich characters exist in the Dodo, but not in the GaUinaceous birds, nor, with the exception of the 
Cathartiius, in the Kaptores. In all birds the basal portion of the mandibles, whether feathered or 
bare, is divided fi'om the corneous termination by a separating line ; but in the Raptores this basal 
portion, instead of being depressed, soft, and vascular, as in the Dodo and the Pigeons, is prominent 
and somewhat hard and horny, resembUng wax in appearance, whence it has received the name of cere. 
The CathartiiicR are the only Raptores which have a soft cere, and in this very superficial character 
they may certainly be said to resemble the Dodo. 

2. In some species of Treron, in Geopliaps, Macropygia, and other Columbine genera, the eyes are 
surrounded by a naked skin, which, if extended over the face, so as to join the bare basal portion of 
the beak, would produce the appeai-ance wliich we see in the Bidus. In those rare genera, Verrulia 
and Diduncvlus (see plate VIL), this junction of the ocular and rostral areae actually takes place, 
and a little more expansion of this naked surface over the forehead would transform those birds into 
miniature Dodos. 

3. In the two strongest beaked genera of Pigeons, Treron and Didunculiis, the corneous portion 
of the beak is strongly uncinate and compressed, while the tip of the lower mandible curves upwards, 
and is overhung by the upper one. A comparison of plates V. and VII. will show how precisely tliis 
conformation is repeated in Did us. 

4. In Treron and in Bidus the nostril is placed about the middle of the beak, close to the base 
of the corneous portion, and near the lower margin. This forward and low position of the nostril 
occm-s more or less in other genera of Pigeons, but in no other family of bii-ds, that I know of. Some 
of the Vultures have tliis orifice equally forward, but none so low down as Treron or Bidus. (See 
plate VIT. fig. 3). Nor can any stress be laid on the supposed absence of an incumbent scale in the 
Dodo ("sans ecaiUe superieure "), referred to by M. De BlainviUe as a Vultmine character. The only 
meaning wliich we can attach to the plirase, " nostrils fui-nished mth an incumbent scale," often met 
with in Bird-books, is that the nostrils enter the beak obliquely, so that their upper margin overhangs 
the lower. Now tliis is, in fact, the case in the Dodo, whose nostrils are remarkably obUque, and are 
overhung above by a soft, tumid skin, agreeing herein with the Pigeons, and (htfermg from the 

5. We find in the Pigeons, even to a greater degree than in Bidus, that sudden sinking from the 
forehead to the beak, and the rapid narrowing of the beak in front of the orbits, which Professor 


Owen points out as a distinction between the latter bird and the Vultures. This is the resvdt of the 
prolongation of the beak, and the approach to paraUehsm in its opposite surfaces ; and the only other 
birds which exliibit tliis conformation, are certain Grallatores and Tenuirostres, neither of wliich groups 
have any reference to the present question. 

6. The apparent width of gape is one of the characters referred to by De BlaiuviUe in proof of 
the Vulturine relations of the Dodo. But the fact is, that the rictus of the Dodo is by no means so 
wide as in the Raptorial birds, and is proportionably no wider than in the Pigeons. On examining 
the original specimen, the angle of the mouth is seen to terminate three quarters of an inch in front of 
the eye. From this point a remarkable cutaneous ridge, wliich seems peculiar to this bhd, extends 
backwards and downwards beneath the eye, and gives the appearance of a very capacious mouth. (See 
plate V). 

7. The tarsi of the Dodo are only partially covered with transverse scuta, the upper portion being 
clothed with small scales. This structure is used by De Blainville as an argument for its affinity to 
the Vultures, in which the tarsi and greater part of the toes are whoUy squamose. But although in 
the majority of Pigeons the tarsi are covered anteriorly with transverse scuta, yet it is interesting to 
find that in two genera, Starnoenas and Goura, whose habits are almost whoUy terrestrial, we find the 
tarsi clothed with small scales, not unlike those in the Dodo. 

8. The absence of metatarsal spines wliich has been adduced as an objection to the supposed 
Gallinaceous affinities of the Dodo, prevails equally throughout the Columbida. 

9. The short robust tarsi, and broad expansion of the lower surface of the toes in the Dodo (see 
PL VI) are much more conspicuous in the Pigeons, especially in the group Treronina (including 
CarpopJiaga), than in the Vultures. 1 know no other group in which the toes are similarly expanded 
except the HombiUs [Bitcerotida) , and these assuredly have no affinity to the Dodo. The design of 
this structure is probably to give the bird a fij-mer footing, and to compensate for the shostness, or 
insufficient lateral movement of the toes. 

10. A general character of perching birds consists in the hind toe being articulated so low down 
that its inferior surface forms a continuous plane with the sole of the foot ; whereas in those orders 
which are essentially ambulatory, such as the Rasores and Grallatores, the hind toe is more or less 
raised above the level of the other toes. But in the Pigeons, whose habits are essentially arboreal, the 
former structure is constant, even in the strictly terrestrial genera, and in the case of the Dodo, 
although it must have been exclusively confined to the ground. Nature still adheres to the Columbine 
position of the liind toe. An analogous persistence of type is seen in the Ground Parrots and Ground 
Cuckoos, in which the reversed position of the outer toe, an essentially scansorial structure, is maintained 
m spite of the discordance of habits. 

11. On comparing the relative lengths of the anterior toes in the chfi'erent genera of Pigeons, 
with reference to their pecuharities of habit, we find that in the exclusively arboreal genera (such as 
Treron, Carpophaga, Ptilonopus, &c.), the inner toe is shorter than the outer ; in the more terrestrial 
genera (as Phaps, Geophaps, &c.), it is longer than the outer; while in those genera wliich combine 
both modes of life, (as Columba, Turtur, GeopeUa, &c.), these digits are nearly equal. Conformably 
with this, we find that in the Dodo, the most terrestrial of all Pigeons, the inner toe is considerably 
longer than the outer. Now although the head of the Dodo agrees most nearly with that of the Trerons, 
from which I infer that it fed, hke those bhds, on tropical fruits, yet as tlie Trerons are exclusively 
arboreal buds, it is interesting to observe that the structure of its foot approaches rather to that of 
the Ground Pigeons. 

Ch. I.] OF THE DODO. 43 

12. The Dodo, like the Pigeons, is destitute of any membrane between the toes; whereas all the 
Vultures, as well as the Gallinaceous birds, are characterized by a short interdigital web. 

13. The short, strong, blunt claws of Bidus do not indicate any Eaptorial propensities, but are 
merely such as we find in most ground birds, as in the terrestrial genera of Pigeons, as well as in the 

B. Internal Characters. — 14. An argument which has often been used to prove that the Dodo was 
a Vulture, or, at least, that it was carnivorous, is the toughness and supposed bad taste' of its flesh. 
Tough it undoubtedly was, and so are all large birds. The toughest bird I ever tried to eat, was a wild 
Swan, yet no one would argue from tliis that Swans are not allied to Geese and Ducks. Even common 
Wood-Pigeons are by no means remarkably tender. And the alleged bad taste of the Dodo is a pure 
invention of the moderns, founded on the statement in Van Neck's Voyage, (see p. 9, supra,) that the 
Dutchmen became disgusted with these birds, and called them Walckvogcl. But tliis disgust is 
expressly attributed, first, to their toughness (accompanied, however, with the admission that the 
breasts and stomaclis [imagine the taste of a Vulture's stomach !] were " saporis jucundi et masticationis 
facUis " ) ; and, secondly, because they found an abundance of Turtle-Doves wliich they hked better. 
And no wonder; Dutch sailors now-a-days, if supphed ad lihitum with Turtle-Doves and "Wood- 
Pigeons, would doubtless devour the former, and call the latter Walchvogel. The voyagers wlio fol- 
lowed Van Neck seem to have been less dainty, for they both feasted on fi'esh Dodos, and stored them 
among their salt provisions {supra, pp. 1.5, 17). It is therefore clear that the little which we ever 
shall know concerning the flavoui- of Dodo-meat affords no objection to the Columbiue hypothesis. 

15. It appears from the paintings of the Dodo, that this bud must have had a very large oeso- 
pliagal dilatation or crop. This is a structure which occurs in many different orders, its object being, 
in some cases (as in granivorous birds), to macerate the food before it passes into the stomach ; in 
others (as in the Kaptores), to enable the bird to swallow large quantities of food at distant intervals. 
The crop of the Dodo, therefore, does not prove much as to its affinities, but as there are no birds 
in which the crop is more developed than in the Pigeons, the figures of the Dodo are quite consistent 
with its supposed relation to that family. 

16. We do not know much as to the degree of muscularity of the Dodo's gizzard. If by the 
"stomach," {venter, ventriculus, estomach, maag,) wliich the old voyagers found tender and palatable, 
the gizzard is intended, it would certainly imply a small degi-ee of muscular rigidity. This, however, 
can hardly have been the case, for we are assured by numerous witnesses {supra, pp. 12, 15, 17, 20, 22,) 
that the Dodo had stones in its gizzard ; a character which is always accompanied by a very muscular 
condition of that organ. Be tliis as it may, we know that stones are only swallowed by frugivorous 
birds, which require them to triturate their food, and are never found in the gizzards of the Eaptores. 

17. We are told by Cauche that the Dodo laid only one egg, and the analogous case of the 
Solitaire (mentioned hereafter), confirms liis statement. Now the Gallinaceous birds are generally 
remarkable for laying a large number of eggs. Eaptorial birds, indeed, lay but few, yet no species of 
that order (as far as I am aware) lays a single egg, Hke the Dodo. But in the Pigeons we find that 
a very small number of eggs (commonly two) are the prevailing rule, wlule in certain genera {Carpiophaga 
and Ectopistes, see Blyth in Journ. As. Soc. Beng. vol. xiv. p. 855), a single egg is produced, as in 

There yet remain several osteological peculiarities in the Dodo which are strongly 



demonstrative of its aiRnity to the CohmUdcn, and of its remoteness from the Raptores. But 
as these will form the subject of the second part of tliis work, and will there be treated in full 
detail by Dr. Melville, I will only briefly eiuimerate the more important ones. These are : — 
IS, the absence or non-development of the vomer, and of the bony septum of the nostrils; 
1 9, the long narrow nasal fissures ; 20, the form of the posterior facet of the lower jaw ; 21, the 
oblique duection of the zygomatic bone ; 22, the peculiar form of the palatine bones ; 23, 
the mesial occipital foramen above the foramen mac/iinm, (pecidiar, it would seem, to the 
Pigeons and the Dodo); 24, the breadth and peculiar twist of the metatarsal of the hind toe 
(see Plate XI.); 25, the oval transverse section of the tarso-metarsal ; 26, the peculiar form 
of the upper extremity of the tarso-metatarsal, including the arrangement of the calcaneal 
processes, and of the canals for the passage of the flexor tendons ; and 27, the fact (peculiar 
to the Pigeons and the Dodo) that these canals pass ou the outside of the posterior ridge of 
the tarsus, and not on the inside, as in Gallinaceous birds. 

Such are the principal points of agreement between the Dodo and the Pigeon family, 
and it will be admitted that they are neither few nor trivial. There are, however, two or 
three points of diversity which it is only fair to mention. 

1 . I need only allude as a matter of form to the non-development of wings, as it is admitted on 
all hands that tliis character distinguishes the Dodo from all other birds with which it can be legiti- 
mately compared, and is as much opposed to the normal structure of the Rapacious birds, as to that of 
the Columbida. 

2. The small size of the cranium in proportion to the beak distinguishes the Dodo no less from 
the Pigeons than from the Vultures. Tliis pecuharity results from the smaU relative dimensions of the 
brain and eyes. It is a general law that animals of great magnitude (the Elephant and Whale, for 
instance,) do not require those important organs to be eidarged in the same proportion as the parts 
destined for locomotion, and the nutritive functions.^ We need not, therefore, wonder that so colossal 
a bird as tlie Dodo should differ in tliis respect from other members of that family to which it is nearest 

3. The Dodo is, as Professor Owen remarks, " peculiar among birds for the equahty of length of 
tlie metatarsus and proximal phalanx of the hind toe," wlule in most birds this phalanx is considerably 
longer than the metatarsal which supports it. The fact is, however, that no argument as to the 
general affinities of a doubtful ornithic genus can be drawn from the relative proportions of the tarso- 
metatarsal, the posterior metatarsal, and the proximal phalanx ; these proportions varying in each 
genus according as its habits are more or less cujsorial, ambulatory, or insessorial. A glance at 
Plate XI., where the forms of these bones in five different genera of Pigeons are exliibited, will sub- 
stantiate tliis remark. 

4. And, lastly, the nostril of the Dodo, although agreeing in position with that of Trermi, is of a 

' This law is probably based on the distinction between ponderable and imponderable substances. The bones 
and muscles of an animal are mechanical structures, the size of wliich bears an exact arithmetical relation to the 
masses which they are required to move ; but the eye and the brain have to deal with light and the nervous fluid — 
imponderable agents, to which the ordinary laws of mechanics do not apply. 

Ch. I.] OF THE DODO. 45 

clifferent_/b;v», being slightly oblique upwards and backwards, wliile that of Trero7i is more horizontal. 
Tliis difference, however, is not greater than what prevails in the nostrils of other genera of pigeons. 

It appears then, that the only points in which the Dodo can be said to differ materially 
from the type of the Pigeons, are few in number, and are not such as to make any approxi- 
mation to the Raptorial form ; and I think it will be granted that the numerous and important 
characters which have been above noticed, will warrant us in regarding the genus Bidus as a 
very aberrant member of the family Columhida. 

Postscript 1. — At pp. 25, 33, svpra, I have inadvertently spoken of "the Gottorf Museum at Copen- 
hagen." At the time when Olearius published his catalogue, this collection was not at Copenhagen, but at 
Gottorf, the seat of the Dukes of Sclileswig; whence it was removed by Frederic IV., about 1720, to 
Copenhagen, and was incorporated with the Eoyal " Kimstkammer " in that metropolis. 

2. It has been suggested to me that translations of the Latin, French, Dutch, and German passages, 
extracted above (pp. 9-25), would be acceptable to many readers, and these are therefore given in the 


The Brevipennate Bird of Rodriguez, the Solitaire. 
V {Pezophaps solitaria, nobis ; — Didm solitarius of Gmelin.) 

Evidence of Leguat ; of Herbert — Bones sent to the Paris Museum ; to tie Andersonian Museum at Glasgow ; 
to the Zoological Society of London — Affinities of the Solitaire. 

I NOAV proceed to notice another bird of equally remarkable structure to the Dodo, and the 
evidence, both historical and osteological, of whose existence, though less abundant, is equally 
positive. The Island of Rodriguez, which is about fifteen miles long by six broad, and 
situated about three hundred miles to the east of Mamitius, gave birth to an apterous bud 
called the Solitaire,'^ which seems to have been an homologous representative of the Dodo in 
the last-mentioned island.^ Rodriguez appears to have remained in a desert and uninhabited 
condition until 1691, when a party of French Protestant refugees settled upon the island, 
and remained there for two years. Their commander, Pran^ois Leguat, a man of intelhgence 
and education, has left a higlily interesting account of their adventm-es, and of the various 
productions of the island. The chief portion of his work which concerns us at present 
I will extract in the Prench original, accompanied by an old translation. 

' The name Solitaire had originally been given to an allied, though doubtless distinct, bird in Bom-bon, of 
which we shall speak presently. Leguat (who never visited Bourbon) probably supposed the Eodriguez bird to be 
the same species, and therefore gave it the name which other voyagers had imposed on the Bom-bon bird. But as 
Leguat's bii-d is the type of the " Bidus solitarius " of systematists, I prefer retaining for it par excellence the 
name of Solitaire. 

- Representation in Zoology is of two kinds, analogous and hotnologous. Analogous representation is where a 
group or species in oiu" part of the organic creation performs a similar office, and is, quoad hoc, similarly organized, 
to a group or species in another part : e. g., the Cetacea among Mammals represent ig analogy the Fish among 
Vertehrata. This kind of representation exists irrespectively of time and space. Homologous representation is 
where two groups or species in the same part of the organic creation perform a similar office in diii'erent geogra- 
phical regions, or at diii'erent times. Thus the Elephants of India and of Africa represent each other by homology in 
space, as the Mammoth and modern Elephants do in time. See Philosophical Magazine, Ser. 3. vol. xxviii. p. 354. 




>- ^^ 

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Pure iv'ratkuriii Casue Hill C^v^tvj Bay 

Friar's Hood 

Diamond Isknd- 



Ch. II.] 



Voyages et Avantures de Francois Leguat. 
2 vols. 12 mo., London, 1720. (2nd ed.) 

" De tous les oiseaux de cet isle I'espece la 
plus remarquable est ceUe h laquelle on a donne le 
noui de Solitaires, parce qu'oii les voit rarement en 
troupes, quoiqne il y en a beaucoup. Les males ont 
le plumage ordinairemeut grisatre et brun, les pieds 
de coq d'Inde, et le bee aussi, mais un peu plus crocbu. 
lis n'ont presque point de queue, et leur derriere 
couvert de plumes est arrondi comme une croupe de 
clieval. lis sent plus haut monies que les coqs 
d'Inde, et out le cou di'oit, un peu plus long a pro- 
portion que ne 1' a cet oiseau quand il leve la tete. 
L'oeil noir et vif, et la tete sans crete ni houpe. lis 
ne volent point, leurs ailes sont trop petites pour 
soutenir le poids de leurs corps. lis ne s'eu servent 
que pour se battre et T^ovjfaire le moulinet quand ils 
veulent s'appeller Tun I'autre. lis font avec vltesse 
20 ou 30 pirouettes tout de suite du meme cote, 
pendant I'espace de 4 ou 5 miiuites : le mouvement 
de leurs ailes fait alors un bruit ([ui approche fort de 
celui d'une Crecerelle, et on I'entend de plus de 200 
pas. L'os de I'ailleron grossit a Textremite et forme 
sous la plume une petite masse ronde comme une 
balle de mousquet, cela et le bee sont la principale 
defense de cet oiseau. On a bien de peine a les 
attrapper dans les bois, mais comme on court plus 
vite qu'eux, dans les Ueux degages, il n'est pas fort 
difficile d'en prendre. Quelquefois meme on en ap- 
proche fort aisement. Depuis le mois de Mars jusqu' au 
mois de Septembre ils sont extraordinaii'ement gras, 
& le goiit en est excellent sur tout quand Os sont 
jeuiies. On trouve des males qui pesent jusqu' a 
45 livres. 

" La femelle est d'une beaute admirable, il y en a de 
blondes & de brunes ; j'appelle blond, une couleur de 
cheveux blonds. EUes ont uue espece de bandeau 
comme un bandeau de veuves au haut du bee, qui 
est de coulem- tannee. Une plume ne passe pas 
I'autre sur tout leur corps, parce qu'elles ont un 
grand besoin de les ajuster, & de se polir avec le bee. 
Les plumes qui accompagnent les cuisses sont arron- 

A new Voyage to the East Indies by Francis 
Leguat and bis Companions. 12 mo. 
London, 1708. 

" Of all the Bu-ds in the Island the most remark- 
able is that wliich goes by the name of the Solitary, 
because it is very seldom seen in Company, tlio' 
there are abundance of them. The Feathers of the 
Males are of a brown grey Coloiu- : the Feet and Beak 
are hke a Turkey's, but a Kttle more crooked. They 
have scarce any Tail, but their Hind-part covered mth 
Feathers is roundish, like the Crupper of a Horse ; 
they are taller than Turkeys. Their Neck is sti-aight, 
and a Httle longer in proportion than a Turkey's 
when it lifts up his Head. Its Eye is black and 
Kvely, and its Head without Comb or Cop. They 
never fly, their Wings are too little to support the 
weight of their Bodies ; they serve oidy to beat them- 
selves, and flutter when they call one another. They 
will whirl about for twenty or thirty times together 
on the same side, during the space of foiu- or five 
minutes. The motion of their "VVings makes thea 
a noise very like that of a Rattle ; and one may hear 
it two hundred Paces off. The Bone of their Wing 
grows greater towards the Extremity, and forms a 
Httle round Mass under the Feathers, as big as a 
Musket Ball. That and its Beak are the chief De- 
fence of this Bird. 'Tis very hard to catch it in the 
Woods, but easie in open Places, because we run 
faster than they, and sometimes we approach them 
without much Trouble. From March to September 
they are extremely fat, and tast admirably well, 
especially while they are young, some of the Males 
weigh forty-five Pounds. 

" The Femals are wonderfully beautiful, some fair, 
some brown ; I call them fair, because they are of the 
colour of fair Hair. They have a sort of Peak, like 
a Widow's upon their Breasts \_lege Beaks], which 
is of a dun coloui'. No one Feather is stragghng 
from the other all over tlieii- Bodies, they being very 
careful to adjust themselves, and make them all even 
with their Beaks. The Feathers on their Thiglis 
are round like shells at the end, and being there very 
thick, have an agreeable effect. They have two 



[Part I. 

Risings on their Craws, and the Feathers are whiter 
there than the rest, which livelily represents the fine 
neck of a Beautiful Woman. They walk with so 
much Statehness and good Grace, that one cannot help 
admiring and loving them; by which means their 
fine Mein often saves their Lives." — p. 71. 

dies par le bout en coquilles, et comme elles sont fort 
epaisses en cet endroit-la, cela produit un agreable effet. 
Elles ont deux elevations sur le jabot, d'un plumage 
plus blanc que le reste, & qui represente merveiUeuse- 
ment un beau seiu de femme. Elles marchent avec 
taut de fierte et de bonne grace tout ensemble, qu'on 
ne pent s'empecher de les admirer & de les aimer, de 
sorte que souveut leur bonne mine leur a sauve la 
vie."— p. 98. 

The author then proceeds as follows : — 

" Tho' these Birds will sometimes very familiarly come up near enough to one, when we do not 
run after them, yet they will never gi'ow Tame. As soon as they are caught they shed Tears without 
Crying, and refuse all manner of Sustenance till they die. 

" We find in the Gizards of both Male and Eemale, a brown Stone, of the bigness of a Hen's 
Egc, 'tis somewhat rough, flat on one side and round on the other, heavy and hard. We believe tliis 
Stone was there when they were hatched, for let them be never so young, you meet with it always. 
They have never but one of 'em, and besides, the Passage from the Craw to the Gizard is so narrow, 
that a like Mass of half the Bigness cou'd not pass. It serv'd to whet our Knives better than any 
other Stone whatsoever. When these Birds build theii- Nests, they choose a clean Place, gather 
together some Palm-Leaves for that purpose, and heap them up a foot and a half high from the Ground, 
on which they sit. They never lay but one Egg, which is much bigger than that of a Goose. The 
Male and Female both cover it in then- turns, and the young is not hatch'd till at seven Weeks' end : 
All the while they are sitting upon it, or are bringing up their young one, which is not able to provide 
for itself in several Months, they will not sidfer any other Bird of their Species to come within two 
hundred Yards round of the Place ; But what is very singular, is, the Males will never drive away the 
Females, only when he perceives one he makes a noise with liis Wings to call the Female, and she 
drives the unwelcome Stranger away, not leaving it till 'tis without her Bounds. The Female do's the 
same as to the Males, whom she leaves to the Male, and he drives them away. We have observ'd this 
several Times, and I affirm it to be true. 

" The Combats between them on this occasion last sometimes pretty long, because the Stranger 
only turns about, and do's not fly directly from the Nest. However, the others do not forsake it tiU 
they have quite driven it out of their Limits. After these Birds have rais'd their young One, and left it 
to itself, they are always together, which the other Birds are not, and tho' they happen to mingle with 
other Birds of the same Species, these two Companions never disunite. We have often remark' d, that 
some Days after the young one leaves the Nest, a Company of thirty or forty brings another young 
one to it, and the new fledg'd Bird, with its Father and Mother joyning with the Band, march to some 
bye Place. We frequently foUow'd them, and found that afterwards the old ones went each their 
way alone, or in Couples, and left the two young ones together, wliich we call'd a Marriage, 

" Tliis Particularity has something in it wliich looks a little Fabulous, nevertheless, what I say 
is sincere Truth, and what I have more than once observ'd with Care and Pleasure." 

This description is accompanied by a figure, which at once shews that the Solitaire was 
a very different bird from the Dodo ; and its accuracy is attested by the fact that in a 

Fldie IVn/fS. 

Pac-amile of xKe Frontoiece of Leguat'^ Yoj^gQ. 


landscape (see plate IV.) and two maps which accompany the work, no less than twenty- 
eight small figm-es of Solitaires are introduced, aU of which very closely correspond with the 
enlarged representation here exhibited. 

Besides the above lengthened description, Leguat alludes to these bii-ds in several other 
passages. One of these is very important, as supplying the only testimony extant as to the 
food of any member of the sub-family Bidinee. 

"The Plantane is a sort of Palm-tree The dates of the Plantane are bigger than 

those of the Palm-tree. Having abundance of better things to feed on, Pish and Flesh, Pruits, &c., 
we left the dates for the Turtles and other birds, particularly the Solitaries, of which we shall 
hereafter make mention." pp. 60, 61. 

The statement that the Solitaii'e lays but one egg, and that its nest is a heap of palm- 
leaves, is very interesting, as Cauche makes a similar assertion regarding the Dodo [supra, p. 22). 
Leguat repeats his statement in another place. Speaking of Sea-Fowl, he says : — 

" They lay three times a year, and but one egg at a time, like the Solitaries : wliich is the more 
remarkable for that if I am not mistaken, ^ we have no example of anytliing like it among our 
European Birds." p. 80. 

' He was mistaken, however, for the Em-opean Petrels, the Gannet, and most of the Jlcidts lay only a single egg, 


One more allusion to Solitaires occnrs in a sentimental and rather long-winded address, 
which Leguat makes to the island of Rodriguez on taking his final departure : — 

" My Mouth confesses from the abundance of my Heart 
That my Soul is touched with Sorrow, 
Now I am about to leave thy wholesora Air, 
Thy good Palm Wine, thy excellent Melons, 
Thy Solitaries, thy Lamentines, 
Thy HiUs always verdant, 
The clear Water of thy Rivers, 
Thy fruitful and smiling Sun, 
And aU thy innocent and rare Delights," &c., &c. — p. 116. 

Our only authentic historical evidence respecting the Solitaire is at present confined to 
Leguat's very cbcumstantial, though unsupported, testimony. One small item of evidence 
may indeed be gleaned from Herbert, who sailed past Rodriguez in 1627, but without landing 
on it, and remarks in his Travels, edition of 1638, p. 341 : — 

" Bigarroys [i. e. Rodriguez] an ile so desolate ; desolate, I mean, in humane 

inhabitants ; other tilings 'tis uberous in, as wood (choyce and store). Tortoises, Dodos, and 
other Fowle rare and serviceable." And again, p. 347, speaking of Mauritius : — " Here, and 
in Dygarrois (and nowhere else that ever I coidd see or heare of) is generated the Dodo," &c. 
This shows that the existence of an apterous bird in Rodriguez was known in his time, 
though it Avas erroneously identified with the Dodo. 

Though Rodriguez is a British colony, yet scarcely any information has been published 
respecting it beyond what Leguat has given us. The island is, however, inhabited by a few 
colonists, one of whom assured Mr. Telfair that no bird of the kind was now known there 
(Proc. Z. S. part 1. p. 31). The same negative result was obtained by Edward Higgin, Esq., 
of Liverpool, who recently suffered shipwreck on this island, and resided there for two months. 
This gentleman has obligingly favoured me with some MS. notes on Leguat's book, together 
with other information, which fully estabhshes the general acciu-acy of Leguat, though some 
allowance must be made for that author not having been a naturalist, and for his work having 
probably been in part wi-itten from memory. To Mr. Higgin I am also indebted for the 
annexed graphic sketch of the scenery of Rodriguez. From the map which Leguat has given 
of the island, it is evident that the Port of Mathurin, here exhibited, was the site of his 
settlement, of which we have a view in plate IV. 

We cannot, therefore, now hope to procure any living Solitaires, though it would no 
doubt be perfectly practicable to obtain every part of the skeleton of this bird from the 
caverns or alluvial deposits of Rodriguez. 

If we had no other data than the description and figure of Leguat, we might perhaps 
refer the Solitaire to the Struthionidce rather than to the Dodo. The legs and neck appear to 
have been longer, the beak shorter, and the wings, though useless for flight, somewhat more 
developed than in Dldus. The short, arched beak, and the defensive structure of the wings, 








remind us of the Cassowary, rather than of the Dodo. But as Ave now possess some actual 
osteological evidences as to its characters, we are enabled to pronounce positively that this 
bird was closely allied to Didus, and was decidedly not Struthious. 

As long ago as 1789 certain bones, encrusted with stalagmite, and supposed to belong 
to the Dodo, were found in a cave in the Island of Rodriguez, by a j\I. Labistoiu-, whose 
son-in-law, M. Roquefeuille gave them, about 1830, to the late M. J. Desjardins, Secretary 
to the " Societe d'Histoire Natiirelle de File Maurice." The latter gentleman sent them to 
Cuvier at Paris, who by some unaccountable confusion of time, place, and circumstance, 
stated them to have been recently found, under a bed of lava, and in Mauritius. These errors 
were corrected by M. Desjardins, in the Analyse des Travaux de la Soc. d'Hist. Nat. de Vile 
Maurice, Ide Aiinee.^ (See also Proceedings of Committee of Zoological Society, part 3, p. 111). 

It was probably the interest excited by these bones, that induced the late Mr. Telfair in 
1831 to apply for further information to Col. Dawkins and to M. Eudes, then resident at 
Rodriguez. The results of his enquiries are thus recorded in the Proceedings of the Zoological 
Society, part. 1, p. 31. 

"Col. Dawkins, in a recent visit to Kodriguez, conversed \\ith every person whom lie met 
respecting the Dodo, and became convinced that the bird does not exist there. The general statement 
was that no bird is to be found there, except the Guinea-fowl and Parrot. From one person, however, 
he learned the existence of another bird, wliich was called Oiseau-banf, a name derived from its voice, 
which resembles that of a Cow. From the description given of it by his informant, Col. Dawkins at 
first believed that this bird was really the Dodo ; but on obtaining a specimen of it, it proved to 
be a Gannet. It is found only in the most secluded parts of the island. 

" Col. Dawkins visited the caverns in which bones have been dug up, and dug in several places, 
but found only small pieces of bone. A beautiful rich soil forms the ground-work of them, wliich is 
from sis to eight feet deep, and contains no pebbles. No animal of any description inhabits these 
caves — not even Bats. 

" M. Eudes succeeded in digging up in the large cavern various bones, including some of a large 
kind of bird, which no longer exists in the island ; these he forwarded to Mr. Telfair, by whom they 
were presented to the Society. The only part of the cavern in wliich they were found was at the 
entrance, where the darkness begins ; the httle attention usually paid to this part by visitors, may be 
the reason why they have not been previously found. Those near the surface were the least injured, and 
they occur to the depth of three feet, but nowhere in considerable quantity ; whence M. Eudes con- 
jectures that the bird was at aU times rare, or, at least, uncommon. A bird of so large a size as that 
indicated by the bones has never been seen by M. Gory, who has resided forty years on the island. 

" M. Eudes adds, that the Dutch, who first landed at Rodriguez, left cats there to destroy the rats 
which annoyed them ; these cats have since become very numerous, and prove highly destructive to 
poultry ; and he suggests it as probable that they may have destroyed the large kind of bird to which the 
bones belong, by devouring the young ones as soon as they were hatched, — a destruction which may 
have been completed long before the island was inhabited." 

' I am indebted to Mr. G. C. Cuninghame for sending me, through Sir W. C. Trevelyan, extracts from the 
archives of the Mauritian Society, detaiUng the above facts. 



Mr. Telfair having thus procured from Rodriguez a collection of bones, presented one 
portion of them to the Zoological Society of London, and another to the Andersonian Museum 
at Glasgow. 

Mr. G. C. Cuninghame, of Port Louis, Mauritius, having been recently applied to by 
Six W. C. Trevelyan, made several enquiries as to the locality above indicated, and gives a 
somewhat different account : — 

"I learn that the bones removed [in 1831] were found by digging in a place apparently hollowed 
out by the action of running water under a mass of rock on the side of a narrow chasm or ravine ; 
that the floor of the cavity is of dark coloured earth, sloping sharply down to its mouth, near which, 
but now considerably below the level of the cavity, a small stream runs at present." 

In October 1845, Capt. Kelly, of H.M.S. Conway, made, at Mr. Cuninghame's request, 
a search for the locality thus indicated. He was unsuccessful in finding the precise spot, 
but examined two caverns, one of which at the base of a chff, contained numerous and beau- 
tiful stalactites ; the other, which he was unable fully to explore for want of a ladder, is in 
a level piece of ground. The floor of both caves, where not covered with stalagmite, is a fine 
red mould, which I strongly recommend to the attention of those who may hereafter have 
the happiness of digging for bones in Rodriguez. 

The bones which were sent to Paris were exhibited in 1830 by Cuvier to the Academy 
of Sciences (Ann. des. Sc. Nat. vol. xxi. ; Revue Sept. 103, 104, 109, 110 ; Bull. Sc. Nat. 
vol. xxii. p. 132 ; Ed. Journ. Nat. Sc. vol. iii. p. 30), but no detailed account of them has yet 
been made public. Being anxious to compare them with the remains of the Dodo which we 
possess at Oxford, I applied to M. de Blainville to permit these bones to be brought to 
England. He at once gave his consent, and commissioned Professor Milne Edwards to 
bring them with him to the meeting of the British Association at Oxford in June 1847, 
an act of liberality which has enabled Dr. Melville and myself to make the desired comparison. 

We were further permitted, by the kindness of the Trustees of the Andersonian Museum 
at Glasgow, to exhibit to the Association the bones from Rodi'iguez presented to that institu- 
tion by the late Mr. Telfair. These gentlemen entrusted the rehcs to Sir W. Jardine, and 
allowed him not only to diffuse, by means of plaster casts, the information they convey, but to 
bring with him the bones themselves to the Meeting. 

The bones which were sent by Mr. Telfair in 1833 to the Zoological Society, have met 
with some unfortunate fate. Three or four years ago, Mr. Eraser, the late Curator of that 
Society, made at my request a diligent search for these specimens, but all his endeavours to 
find them were fruitless. Among the many treasures which have been presented to the Society 
during the last twenty years, and which for want of space are still buried in vaults and out- 
houses, he found the identical box sent by Mr. Telfair ; but, alas ! the bones of the Solitaire, 
apterous as it was, had flown away, and the only bones that remained belonged to Tortoises ! 
We are again, therefore, obliged to fall back upon historical records in place of ocular 
evidence. In the Proceedings of the Zoological Society for March 12, 1833, p. 32, we 

Ch. IL] of the solitaire. 53 

read that " the bones procured [in Rodriguez] for Mr. Telfair were laid on the table. They 
include, with numerous bones of the extremities of one or more large species of Tortoise, 
several bones of the hinder extremity of a large bird, and the head of a humerus. With 
reference to the metatarsal bone of the bird, which was long and strong. Dr. Grant pointed 
out that it possessed articulating surfaces for four toes, tlu-ee directed forwards, and one 
backwards, as in the foot of the Dodo preserved in the British Museum, to which it was 
also proportioned in its magnitude and form." 

In our attempts, therefore, to reconstruct the skeleton of the Solitaire, and to determine its 
zoological affinities, our only data are the bones which the Curators of the Paris and Glasgow 
collections have enabled us to bring into juxta-positiou. The bones of the supposed SoUtaire 
from the Paris Museum are five in niuuber;' viz., a femur, a tarso-metatarsal, a humerus, 
the medial portion of a sternum, and a portion of the cranium. Unfortunately they are all 
incrusted uniformly over with stalagmite, from tV to to of an inch in thickness, which pre- 
vents all examination of the surface of the bones, or any minute description of their structure. 
They nevertheless supply us with several important elements to guide us in reconstructing 
the skeleton of this lost bird. 

From the uniformity in the appearance and thickness of the incrustation, it appears 
evident that these bones have all been obtained in one locality, probably in some pool on the 
floor of a cavern, exposed to the dripping of water containing carbonate of hme. And from 
the fact that no duplicate bones occur amongst them, and from their apparent agreement in 
proportionate size, we have a right to assume that they are portions of the skeleton of the 
same individual. (See Plates XIII. and XIV.) 

The Glasgow series of bones are aU portions of the hinder extremity, and consist of 
three femora, a tibia, and two tarso-metatarsal bones. Their appearance, as well as their 
history, proves them to have been obtained under different circumstances from those last 
mentioned. They still contain nearly the whole of their animal matter, present a glossy 
surface, considerable specific gravity, and are neither changed in colour nor incrusted with 
extraneous matter. They have the appearance of having been obtained from a reddish soil 
on the floor of some dry cave, where they have been protected from the changes of weather 
and from the action of mineral waters. 

The only bones which are common to the Paris and Glasgow series are the femur 
(Plate XIV.) and the tarso-metatarsal. (Plate XV.) On comparing these together, they 
present every indication of specific identity. The tarso-metatarsal at Paris is of the same form 
and dimensions (allowing for the thickness of the incrusting matter) as the pair at Glasgow. 
And the Parisian femur, though apparently much larger, o\ving to the thickness of its stalag- 
mitic coating, is yet reducible to the same dimensions as the largest of the three Andersonian 
femora. From this, and from the anatomical relations of the bones to each other, it appears 
certain that these two coflections of bones belong to one and the same species of bird. And 

^ There is a sixth bone in the collection, but it belongs, not to the Solitaire, but to a Tortoise. 


as we know that they were all brought from the small island of Rodriguez, where no bird 
now exists to which they can be referred, we have a right to assume that they belong to the 
extinct species described and figured by Leguat as the Solitaire. 

On comparing these bones from Rodriguez with the few remains extant of the Dodo of 
Mauritius, we see at once that they are not specifically identical. The tarso-metatarsal from 
Rodi-iguez is about an inch longer than that of the Dodo, and the proportions of the other 
. bones indicate a more erect and longer legged bird, precisely as the description and figure of 
the Solitaii-e given by Leguat wodd lead us to expect. On the other hand,^ the peculiar 
form of the calcaneal processes, the expansion of the distal end of the tarso-metatarsal, the 
large surface of attachment for the posterior metatarsal, and other characters which distin- 
guish the Dodo, are precisely repeated in the bones before us, showing that the species to 
which they belong is unquestionably very nearly allied to, though not identical with, the 
Dodo. And it is important to remark that as far as wc can trace the points of agreement 
between these two extinct bu-ds, they are shared in common with the Pigeons, and exist in 
no other known families of birds. 

Unfortunately the cranium of the supposed SoUtaire is very imperfect (see Plate XIII.), 
and the anterior portion is entirely wanting. With such incomplete data, it may, therefore, 
appear premature to assert the generic distinction of these two birds. Yet from the greater 
\ length of the legs, and less development of the beak, as indicated by Leguat, it seems certain 

that the Dodo and the Solitaire would be classed (according to the present standard of zoolo- 
gical characters) in two distinct genera. I therefore propose to bestow upon the Solitaire the 
provisional generic name of Pezophaps (from Tre'^by, pedestrian, and (/>ai/r, a pigeon), in the 
confidence that future discoveries of the remaining parts of the skeleton will justify this 
denomination. The Columbine characters of the Solitaire will be fully described by Dr. 
Melville in the second Part of this work, but I \vill draw attention in passing, to certain peculi- 
arities recorded by Leguat in his account of the Solitaire, which confirm this view of its 
affinities. I refer to the feeding on Dates or Plantains, the monogamous habits, the laying 
only one egg, the building a nest, and the inability of the nestling to provide for itself. Now 
the first of these characters is incompatible with any supposed Raptorial affinities, and the four 
last are opposed to the Gallinaceous hypothesis, but the whole of them are consistent with 
the habits of that anomalous family, the Columbidce} And as we have osteological evidence 
of the affinity of the Sohtaire to the Dodo, we thus obtain a reflected and collateral proof of 
the Columbine relations of the latter bird. 

There is one remarkable character in the skeleton of the Solitaire which seems opposed 
to the supposition that it belongs to a brevipennate bird. In ordinary birds the power of 
flying requires great size and strength in the pectoral muscles, and a largely developed keel 

' Ml". Blytli tells us that the Pigeons of the genus Carpophaga " do not in general lay more than one egg, and 
certain species invariably but one ; in which respect they resemble the celebrated Passenger Pigeon of North 
America {Ectopktes •ndgratoria)." — Joiu'n. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, vol. xiv. p. 855. 



upon the sternum for their insertion. But in the Ostriches, where the wings are short and 
feeble, the pectoral muscles are exceedingly small, and the sternum is destitute of a medial 
keel. Now in the sternum of the Solitaire we find a considerably developed keel, such as 
would almost indicate volatile powers. (See Plate XIII.) The shortness of the humerus, 
however, no less than the positive testimony of Leguat, prove that the bird was wholly unable 
to rise from the ground. The presence of a sternal keel would therefore appear anomalous, 
were it not for a circumstance mentioned by Leguat, namely, that the bird used its wings 
for self-defence, and was able to inflict considerable blows with these members, for which 
end a corresponding strength of the pectoral muscles, and enlargement of the sternal keel 
would be required. It is, moreover, evident from the figiu'es handed down to us, both of the 
Dodo and the Solitaire, that the wings of these birds, though too short for flight, were yet 
considerably more developed both in size and structure, than is the case in the StruUdonidce. 

Before leaving the Island of Rodriguez I must call attention to the following passage 
of Leguat :■ — • 

"Nos Gelinottes sont grasses, pendant toute I'annee, & d' un goiit tres delicat. EUes sont toutes 
d' un gris clair, n' y ayant que tres peu de difference de plumage, entre les deux sexes. EUes cachent 
si bien leur nids que nous n' en avons pu decouvrir, ni par consequent gouter leurs Oeufs. EUes ont 
un oui'let rouge autour de 1' ceil. Et leur bee qui est droit et poiutu, est rouge aussi; long d' environ 
deux ponces. EUes ne se sgauioient gueres voler [" they cannot fly " — Eng. ed.], la graisse les rendant / 

trop pesantes. Si on leur presente quelque cliose de rouge, cela les irrite si fort qu' eUes viennent 
1' attaquer pour taclier de 1' emporter ; si bien que dans 1' ardeur du combat on a occasion de les 
prendre facUement." — p. 103. 

The English translation is as follows : — 

" Our Wood-Hens are fat all the year round, and of a most delicate taste : Tlieii- colour is always 
of a bright gray, and there's very Utile difference in the plumage between the two sexes. They bide 
their nests so weU that we cou'd not find 'em out, and consequently did not tast their esgs. They 
have a red Ust about their eyes, their beaks are straight and pointed, near two inches long, and red 
also. Tliey cannot fly, their fat makes 'em too heavy for it. If you ofier them anything that's red, 
they are so angry that they wUl fly at you to catch it out of your hand, and in the heat of the combat 
we had an opportunity to take them with ease." — Eng. ed. p, 75. 

The name Gelinotte would imply a bird allied in appearance to the Grouse of Europe, 
but the " straight pointed beak, two inches long," seems to place this bird out of the pale of 
the Gallinaceous order. I cannot help suspecting that we have here an indication of another 
brevipennate bird, nearly, if not quite, unable to fly, and related, perhaps by analogy only, to 
the Didince, while its affinities may have pointed towards the Apteryx. This conjecture derives 
probability from the unknown Maiu-itian bird, figured by Van den Bi-oecke, and by Herbert, 
and described by Gauche i^ide supra, pp. 19, 21), and which may have been related to the 
" Gelinotte " of Leguat, especially as the latter mentions Gelinottes among the birds of 
Mavu-itius, as well as of Rodriguez. Gauche, too, records that his " Ponies rouges au bee de 




Becasse," were caught with a red rag hke Leguat's Gelinottes. On the other hand, 
jVIr. Hio-o-ins iiit'orins uie that a species of Nimida, or Guinea-Fowl, is now abundant in 
Rodrio-uez (introduced probably by the early voyagers), and it is therefore possible that 
Leo^uat's description may be intended for this bird, although the discrepancies are considerable. 
The Gelinotfe question is therefore open to further investigation, and I would especially 
recommend it to the attention of the " Societi'i cVHistoire Naturelle de Vile de Maurice!' 


Brevipennate birds of the Isle of Bourbon. 

Evidence of Cadleton; of Bontehoe ; of Carre; of Sieur D. B.; of Billiard ; of a British Officer — 
Indications of a Brevipennate Bird in Madagascar — Review of the whole subject — Analogical case of 
New Zealand — Conclusion. 

The volcanic island of Bourbon, which lies about one hundred miles to the S.W. of Mauritius, 
is proved by indubitable evidence to have been inhabited by two species of birds, whose 
inability to fly, and their consequent rapid extinction, brings them into the same category 
with the Dodo of Mam-itius and the Solitaire of Rodriguez. It will be remembered that 
Bourbon was discovered between 1502 and 1545 by Mascaregnas, a Portuguese, who 
called the island by his own name, but seems to have left us no other record of his visit. 

1 . The earliest notice which concerns us is by Captain Castleton, who visited Bourbon 
in 1613. In the account of his voyage, written by J. Tatton, one of his officers, we read : — 

"There is store of Land-fowl, both small and great, plentie of Doves, great Parrats, and such 
like ; and a great fowl of the bigness of a Turkie, very fat, and so short winged that they cannot tiie, 
beeing white, and in a manner tame ; and so are all other fowles, as having not been troubled nor feared 
with shot. Our men did beate them down with sticks and stones. Ten men may take fowle enough 
to serve forty men a day." (Purchas, ed. 1625. vol. i. p. 331. This narrative was also pubhshed 
separately in 1690, and is included in Prevost's Histoire Generale des Voyages, vol. ii. p. 130; in 
Harris's Voyages, vol. i. p. 115 ; and in Grant's Mauritius, p. 164.) 

2. In 1618, Bontekoe, a Dutch voyager, spent twenty-one days in Bombon, which he 
describes as abounding with Geese, Parrots, Pigeons, and other game, and adds, " there were 
also Dod-eersen, which have small wings, and so far from being able to fly, they were so fat 
that they coidd scarcely walk, and when they tried to run, they dragged their under side 
alono- the ground." The original words, contained in the Journael ofte gendenckwaerdige 
Beschryvinge van de Oost-Indische Reyse van Willem Ysbrantz Bontekoe van Hoom, 4to. 
Rotterdam, 1674, are as follows : — 

" Daer waren oock eenige dod-eersen, die kleyne vleugels hadden, maer konden niet vUegen, waren 
soo vet datse qualijck gaen konden, want als sie liepen, sleepte haer de neers langhs de aerde."— p. 7.^ 

1 Bontekoe's Voyage was published in Dutch at Haerlem in 1646, at Rotterdam in 164.7, at Utrecht in 1649 
and 1651, and at Amsterdam in 1648, 1650, and 1656. A French translation will be found in Thevenot's 
llelations de divers Voyages Curieux, Paris, 1663, vol. i., and a German one in Hiilsius's " Vier und zwanzigste 
Schiffnrt," &c. 4to. Franckfort, 1648. p. 7. 


Bontekoe appears to have considered these birds identical with the Dodos of Mauritius, 
and the slowness of pace and shortness of leg, which his description implies, hardly agree 
with what we know of these Bom-bou birds. But as we have no other proof of the existence 
of the Dodo in Bom-bon, and as Bontekoe's account must have been written from memory 
(for his ship was afterwards blown up, and he was the sole survivor), we must not look for 
scientific accuracy in his statement. The probabiUty is, that when he in after years compiled 
the narrative of his perilous adventures, having a recollection of a large brevipennate bird in 
Bourbon, whose tameness rendered it an easy prey to his sailors, he concluded it to be the 
Dodo, and adopted the name and descriptions of that bird which had been given by previous 

3. We have next to notice the narrative of a Frenchman, named Carre, who visited 
Bourbon in 16GS, and relates as follows : — 

"■ J'ay vu dans ce lieu une sorte d' oiseau que je n'ay poiut trouve ailleui's : c'est celuy que les 
habitans ont nomme F Oiseau Solitaire, parce qu' effectivement il aime la solitude, et ne se plait que 
dans les endroits les plus ecartez ; on n' en a jamais vu deux ni plusieurs ensemble ; U est toujours 
seul. II ne ressembleroit pas mal a un Coq d'Inde, s'il n'avoit point les jambes plus hautes. La 
beaute de son plumage fait plaisir a voir. C'est une couleur cliangeante qui tire sur le jaiine. La 
chair en est exquise : elle fait un des meilleurs mets de ce pai's-la, et pourroit faire les delices de nos 
tables. Nous voulumes garder deux de ces oiseaux pour les envoyer en France, et les faire presenter 
a Sa Majeste; mais aussi-tot qu'ils furent dans le Vaisseau, ils moururent de melancolie, sans vouloii- 
ni boire ni manger." — Voyages des Indes Orientales par M. Carre, 2 vols. 12mo. vol i. p. 12. See 
also Prevost, Hist. Gen. des Voyages, vol. ix. p. 3. 

Translation : — 

" I here saw a kind of bird wliich I have not found elsewhere : it is that which the inhabitants call 
the Oiseau Solitaire, for, in fact, it loves solitude, and only frequents the most secluded places. One 
never sees two or more of them together ; they are always alone. It is not unlike a Turkey, were it 
not that its legs are longer. The beauty of its plumage is dehghtful to behold. It is a changeable 
colour-, which verges upon yellow. The flesh is exquisite ; it forms one of the best dishes in this 
country, and might form a dainty at our tables. We wished to keep two of these birds to send to 
France and present them to His Majesty, but as soon as they were on board ship, they died of melan- 
choly, having refused to eat or drink." 

It will be observed that Tatton describes these birds as white. Carre's expression, 
" une couleur changeante qui tire sur le jaune," is rather vague, but seems to imply a pale 
yellowish or creara-colovu-ed tint, which another author might easily have described as white. 
At any rate there seems no reasonable doubt that Tatton and Carre both described the same 
species of bird. 

4. In the year after Carre's visit, a French colony was sent from Madagascar to Bourbon 
tmder M. de la Haye. One of the party, who calls himself the Sieur D. B., has left an 
interesting account of the expedition. His journal is contained in a MS., given by Mr. Telfair 


to the Zoological Society of London, wliicli I hope will not be allowed to remain much longer 
unpublished.* He not only confii-ms the accounts given by Tatton, Bontekoe, and Carre, of 
a brevipennate bird in Bombou, but gives us a clear proof that a second species of the same 
group of bii-ds inhabited that island. Speaking of the land-birds of the island, he 

1. "Solitaires: ces oiseanx sont nommes ainsi, parce qu'ils vont toujours seuls. Us sont gros 
comme une grosse Oye, et ont le plumage blanc, noir a Textremite des ailes et de la queue. A la 
queue il y a des plumes approcliantes de celles d'Autruclie, lis ont le col long, et le bee fait comme 
celui des Becasses, mais plus gros, les jambes et pieds comme poulets d' Inde. Get oiseau se prend a 
la course, ne volant que bien peu. 

2. " Oiseanx hleus, gros comme les Solitaires, out le plumage tout bleu, le bee et les pieds rouges, 
faits comme pieds de poules, ils ue volent point, mais ils courent extrememeut vite, tellement qu'un 
chien a peine d' en attraper a la course ; ils sont tres bons." ' 

Translation : — 

1. "Solitaires. These birds are so called because tliey always go alone. They are the size of a 
large Goose, and are white, with the tips of the wings and tail black. The tail feathers resemble those 
of an Ostrich ; the neck is long, and the beak is like that of a Woodcock, but larger ; the legs and 
feet hke those of Turkeys. This bird has recourse to running, as it flies but very httle. 

2. " Oiseaux hlem, the size of Solitaires, have the plumage wholly blue, the beak and feet red, 
resembhng the feet of a hen. They do not fly, but they run extremely fast, so that a dog can hardly 
overtake them ; they are very good eatuig." 

I should have been disposed to refer the " Oiseau bleu " to the genus Porphyrio, were 
we not told that they were the size of the Solitaire, i. e., of a large Goose, that the feet 
resembled those of a hen, and that they never fly. Moreover, Bory St. Vincent in his list of 
the Birds of Bourbon (Voy. aux quatre lies de la Mer d'Afrique, vol. i.), makes no mention 
of any species of Vorphyrio. 

It is evident from these statements, 

1st, That Bourbon was formerly inhabited by a brevipennate bud called the Solitaire, 
whose white or light yellow plumage, and Woodcock-like beak proves it to have been 
distinct from the Dodo of Mauritius and from the so-called Solitaire of Rodriguez. 

2ndly, The account given by the Sieur D. B. seems to imply that this bird possessed 
some, though very imperfect, powers of flight ; but as Tatton and Bontekoe distinctly assert 
the contrary, we may presume that this statement of the former author was inaccurate. 

And 3rdly, it is clear that a second brevipennate species, the " Oiseau bleu " of Sieur D.B., 
was also a native of Bom-bon, though fi'om its speed in running it probably escaped the 
notice of the earlier voyagers. 

5. Of this Oiseau bleu, the only other indication which I have met with is in Rees' 
Cyclopaedia, art. " Bourbon," where it is stated that in Bourbon there is " a kind of large 

' This passage was first published in a paper which I communicated to the Zoological Society, Apl. 23, 1844. 
(Proc. Z. S. pt. xii. p. 77.) 



bat, denominated VOiseau bleu, which are skinned and eaten as a great dehcacy." This is 
evidently a blunder, as regards the " Oiseau bleu " being a bat, but it proves that some 
author besides the Sieur D. B. has noticed the Oiseau bleu of Bourbon, though I have been 
unable to discover from what work this statement is copied. 

6. We have evidence that one, at least, of these apterous species of birds continued to 
inhabit Bom-bon till nearly the middle of the last centmy. M. Billiard, who resided in 
that island between 1817 and 1820, and appears to have had access to some of the original 
archives of the island, tells us that at the time of its first colonization " the woods were filled 
with bu-ds which were not alarmed at the approach of man. Among these was the Dodo or 
Solitaire, which was pursued on foot ; they were still to be seen in the time of M. de la 
Bourdonnaye, who sent a specimen as a curiosity to one of the Directors of the Company." 
Now M. de la Bom-donnaye was Governor of the Isles of France and Bourbon from 1735 to 
1746, so that these singidar birds must have survived tUlthe former, and mai/\\?L\e continued 
till the latter date at least. 

7. In Grant's Mauritius, p. 167, is an extract from " Observations on the Isle of Bom-bon 
in 1763, by an Ofiicer of the British Navy," which may possibly indicate that these singidar 
birds survived in that island as recently as the above date : — 

" The plain dss Caff res is formed by the summits of mountains at a very considerable elevation 

above the sea Ou tliis elevated plain there are small trees, vith broom, fiirze, a kind of 

\rild oat, and fern, which grows to the height of a slirub. There are also some curious birds which 
never descend to the sea-side, and who are so little accustomed to, or alarmed at, the sight of man, 
that they suffer themselves to be killed by the stroke of a walking-stick." 

Whether the " curious birds " here alluded to, be referable to the brevipennate group or 
not, does not appear, but it seems certain that in 1801, when Bory St. Vincent made a 
carefid scientific survey of the Island of Bourbon, no such birds were then in existence. ' 

Our evidence respecting the brevipennate birds of Bom'bon is at present confined to 
Historical testimony. No delineations of these creatures appear to be now extant, and their 
osseous remains have never yet been sought for, and have consequently never yet been found. 
We cannot therefore at present decide whether these extinct birds were more allied to the 
Dodo of Mauritius, or to the Ostrich of Africa, though from the descriptions given, the former 
supposition is most probable. We naturally look to the little-known island of Madagascar 
as the region most likely to contain birds allied by affinity to those of Bourbon, No recent 

' The reader must beware of adducing an additional testimony from a passage wliich that careless compiler, 
Grant, in his chapter on Bourbon, professes to quote from Du Quesne : — " The Giant and the Dodo are large birds 
of an extraordinary height, which frequent the rivers and lakes, and whose flesh is like that of the Bittern." 
(Hist, of Mam'itius, p. 154.) In Du Quesne's account of Bourbon (drawn up apparently as an emigrant-trap) as 
quoted by Leguat, p. 56 (for I have not been able to find the original), the words are " Les Geans sont de grands 
oiseaux montes sur des echasses," &c. The words " and the Dodo " are therefore an interpolation of Grant's, nor 
does the English translator of Leguat mend the matter (p. 41), by rendering Geam into Peacocks ! The fact is, 
that these Gea/is are evidently (notwithstanding the Stork -like aspect of Leguat's plate at p. 171) Flamingos. 


travellers have alluded to the existence of any Struthious or brevipennate birds in ]\Iadagascar, 
though from the following passage in Flacourt's Histoire de la grande Isle Madagascar, pub- 
lished at Paris in 1658, 4to., it appears that a bu'd of that family inhabited IMadagascar less 
than two centuries ago. Flacourt tells us that " the Vouron paira is a large bird which 
frequents the region of Ampatres [a province at the south extremity of Madagascar] and lays 
eggs like the Ostrich. It is a kind of Ostrich ; the inhabitants are unable to capture it, and 
it inhabits the most desert places." 

"Oyseaux qui hantent les bois. Touron patra, c'est un grand oyseau qui hante les Ampatres ct 
fait des oeufs conime TAutruche; c'est une espece d'Autruchej ceux des dits Heux ne le peuvent 
prendre; il cherche les lieux les plus deserts." — p. 165. 

This brief indication may perhaps guide the future explorer of ]\Iadagascar to a dis- 
covery of great zoological interest. 

On a review of the various Historical and Osteological evidences which I have now 
brought together, it seems sufficiently clear that the three oceanic islands, Mauritius, Rodri- 
guez, and Bom-bon, which, though somewhat remote from each other, may be considered as 
forming one geographical group, were inhabited, until the time of their human colonization, 
by at least four distinct, but probably allied, species of brevipennate bu'ds. This result at 
once reminds us of the analogous case of the New Zealand group of islands, where the 
scientific zeal of Messrs. Cotton, Williams, Colenso, ManteU, and others, has brought to 
hght a mine of osteological treasures, from which the consummate sagacity of Prof. Owen 
has re-consti'ucted two new genera of brevipennate birds. Seven species of Dinoniis and two 
of Palapteryx have been clearly established and elaborately described by Professor Owen, 
while in the still surviving genus Apteryx, of which Mr. Gould has very recently described a 
second species, we see an almost expiring member of the same zoological group. ' 

The extraordinaiy success of the natm-alists of New Zealand, in procuring from recent 
alluvial deposits a series of osseous remains which have more than doubled the number of 
StrutJdoid birds previously known, should encoiu-age the scientific residents in the islands of 
the Indo- African Sea to make similar researches. I feel confident that if an active naturalist 
would make a series of excavations in the alluvial deposits, in the beds of streams, and 
amid the ruins of old habitations in Mauritius, Bourbon, and Rodriguez, he would speedily 
discover remains of the Dodo, the two " Solitaires," or the " Oiseau bleu." But I would 

' The recent discovery of the heads of Binornis and Palapteryx has proved that these two genera are not so 
nearly allied as was at first supposed. Professor Owen read a paper on the subject to the Zoological Society, 
January 11th, 1848, in which he shows that " the beak oi Palapteryx is decidedly Struthious. The beak and skull 
o{ Binornis differ very essentially from any form, either recent or extinct." — {Athenatim, no. 1057, p. 116). In a 
recent communication to the Geological Society, Feb. 2nd, 1848, Dr. ManteU states that the ornithic bones sent by 
his sou from New Zealand are referable to no less than_/?ye genera. — {Athenceum, no. lOGl, p. 218). 

62 CONCLUSION. [Part I. 

especially direct the attention to the caves with which those volcanic islands abound. The 
chief agents in the destruction of the brevipennate birds were probably the run-away 
nesros, who for many years infested the primaeval forests of those islands, and inhabited 
the caverns, where they would doubtless leave the scattered bones of the animals on which 
they fed. Here, then, may we more especially hope to find the osseous remains of these 
remarkable animals. 

Should any copies of this work find their way to Mauritius or Bom'bon, they may 
perhaps incite the lovers of knowledge in those islands to investigate fiuther the subject 
which has been diligently, but imperfectly, pm-sued in tliis volume. And I shall feel rewarded 
for the trouble it has cost, if my researches into the history and organization of these birds, 
aided by the anatomical investigations which Dr. Melville has introduced into the second 
part of the work, shall have rescued these anomalous creatui'es from the domain of Fiction, 
and established their true rank in the Scheme of Creation. 


Postscript to Part I. 

The foregoing sheets had been printed some time, and the second part of this work had been unavoidably 
delayed by the great attention which the osteological plates and descriptions required, when I was led to 
some additional sources of information which demand notice. 

The first of these is a rare edition of Boiitekoe's Voyage, kindly communicated to me by Dr. Bandinel, 
the Bodleian Librarian, entitled " Journael van de acht-jarige avontuerhjcke Reyse van Willem Ysbrantsz 
Bontekoe van Hoorn, gedaen nae Oost-Indien," pubhshed in 4to at Amsterdam, by GilUs Joosten 
Zaagman. There is no date, but from a narrative introduced at the end, it must be subsequent (probably 
only by a year or two) to 1646. The narrative is nearly a verbatim version of the other Dutch editions of 
Bontekoe (noticed at p. 57 siqjra), and the only variation of text which concerns us, is in the statement 
that the underside of the Dodo dragged along the ground, wliich is here qualified thus : — " sleepte haer 
de neers iy na (i. e. almost) langs de Aerde." But what gives a peculiar interest to tliis volume is, that it 
contains (alone of all the editions of Bontekoe wliich I have seen) a figure of the Dodo, which I here 

Tliis liiglily ludicrous representation is more like a Fighting-cock than a Dodo, and the black-letter 
of the Dutch text omits to teU us whether tliis design was due to the pencil of Bontekoe or Ins pubhsher 
Zaagman, or whether it was copied from some contemporary painting now forgotten. But there can be 
no doubt that this figure refers to the true Dodo of Mauritius, and not to the "SoHtaire" of Bourbon, 
with which Bontekoe confounded it (see p. 58 siqwa). 

We may regret that the rudeness of the original woodcut leaves us in the dark as to the nature of the 
object on wliich the Dodo appears about to feed. This figure would pass equally well for a testaceous mollusc, 
or for an arboreal fruit, so that the problem of the Dodo's food seems as far from a solution as ever. 



A notice of Saver/s Dodo-picture in the Belvedere at Vienna (see p. 30 supra) is given in the Archiv 
fiir Naturgeschichte, for 1848, p. 79, by Dr. L. J. Fitzinger, who there states that he has long known this 
interestino- painting, and was on the point of publisliing a fac-simile of it, when, hearing tliat this work 
was in course of preparation, he courteously resigned his intention, and contented himself with publisliing 
a brief notice of its existence. He states that tliis picture measures sixteen by twenty-two inches, and repre- 
sents an ideal landscape with the fore-ground crowded M'ith birds, some on land, and some in the water, 
all of which are accurately designed. 

Eive weeks had elapsed since the last sheets of Part I. had gone to press, when, on May 16th, 1848, 
I received (tlirough the kindness of my friend and former fellow-traveller, Mr. W. J. Hamilton, P.R.G.S.) 
a pamphlet by Dr. Hamel, entitled " Der Dodo, die EinsiecUer, und der erdichtete Nazarvogel." I am 
thus exact as to dates, in order that the similarity between many of Dr. Hamel's inferences and my own 
may be attributed, not to plagiarism, but to the Unity wliich characterizes Truth. This memoir was read 
before the Petersburg Academy on January 9th, 1846, but has only just been pubbslied in the Bulletin 
Phys.-math. Acad. St. Petersb. vol. vii. no. 5, 6. Dr. Hamel here gives a resume of the liistorical and 
pictorial evidences respecting the Dodo and Solitaire, as far as he had ascertained them, but he leaves 
untouched the question of their affinities, and too often omits to indicate the original sources of liis 
information. As I have already discussed most of the details contained in tliis treatise, I need only refer 
to two or three points which had escaped my notice. 

The diligent researches of Dr. Hamel appear to have added notliing to the liistorical evidence which 
is recorded above. The only work mentioned by liim wliich I had failed to consult is the Journal of 
Paul van Soldt, for which I had sought in the libraries of Oxford and London mthout success. This, 
however, is merely another version of the account of Van der Hagen's Voyage, and does not add to the 
information respecting it given at p. 17 supra. 

Dr. H. has judiciously remarked that from an obscurity of expression in the earliest account of 
Van Neck's Voyage, the Dodo was described by translators and subsequent compUers as having the wings 
blackish and the tail grey. But we know from the coloured paintings that the whole bird was greyish, and the 
wings and tail yellowish. (See Plates I., III.) This error was corrected by Matehef (p. 17 supra), who 
stated the plumage to be grey, and by Verhuffen (or rather his officer and journalist Verkens), in whose 
narrative (p. IS supra) it is added that the wing feathers were yeUow. 

Dr. Hamel has shewn the probability that the island, or bank, of Nazareth (see p. 21 supra) has no 
more existence than the Bidus nazarenus to wliich it gave a name. I must therefore apologize to geo- 
graphers for having introduced this vigia into the chart of the Indo-Afiican Ocean at p. 6, which was 
copied from Mr. Arrowsmith's map of the world, published in 1842. 

The Geans of Leguat, which I have referred to Plamingos (p. 60 supra), are by Dr. Hamel conjectured to 
be Strutliious birds, wliich, bke the Solitaire, have become extinct since the days of Leguat. On re-perusing 
Leguat's text, however, it does not appear to me that the discrepancies between his Geam and the Flamingo 
are so great as to justify tliis conclusion. 

After quoting Leguat's account of the Solitaire, Dr. Hamel tells us the following anecdote. The 
French astronomer Pingre visited Rodriguez in 1761, to observe the famous transit of Venus, which was 
the occasion of many similar expeditions. To commemorate this circumstance Le Monnier proposed to 
place the Solitaire among the constellations, but being a better astronomer than ornithologist, he inad- 
vertently gave this honour, not to the Didine bird of Rodriguez, but to the Sohtary Thrush of the 
Philippines (Monticola eremita), figured by Brisson, vol. ii. pi. 28. f. 1, instead of copying Leguat's figure 
as he might have done. (See Memoires de 1' Academic, 1776, p. 562, pi. 17.) It is worth the consi- 


deration of astronomers whether the imaginary outline of tliis constellation might not be so altered as to 
restore to Leguat's Solitaire the honours which are its due.^ 

In connection with Pingre's visit, Dr. Hamel adds the following judicious suggestion : — " We know 
the spot in Rodriguez where Leguat and liis companions resided for two years. It appears that Pingre also 
lived there in 1760 and 1761, and conducted liis astronomical observations, for he says (Hist, de FAcad. 1761, 
p. 108, and Memoires, p. 415) that the place was called 'Enfoncement de Frangois Leguat.' - In Leguat's 
map the place is accurately indicated where the common kitchen of the settlers stood, and where the great 
tree grew, under which they used to sit on a bench to take their meals. The tree and bench are introduced 
in the map. At these two spots it is probable that the bones for a complete skeleton of Leguat's Solitaire 
might be collected ; those of the head and feet on the site of the kitchen, and the sternum and other bones 
on that of the tree." 

I have next to notice a memoir by Professor Owen, just published in the Transactions of the Zoological 
Society, vol. iii. p. 345, on the remains of Dinornis, Valapteryx, Notornis, and Nestor, discovered by 
Mr. W. ManteU in New Zealand. In this paper Professor Owen has availed liimself of the recent dissection 
of the Dodo's head, to cai'ry on the comparison of that bird mth the Binornls, which he had commenced 
(in regard to the leg bones) in 1846. He further remarks : "With respect to the Dodo, the idea enter- 
tained by Dr. Reinhardt and by Mr. Gould ^ of its affinity to the ColiimbidcB, was supported by new arguments 
adduced by Mr. Strickland in his elaborate and interesting communications and lecture before the British 
Association at Oxford (June, 1847)." 

Tliis quotation contains a slight inaccuracy which I must be allowed to correct. In regard to 
Professor Reinhardt, I have already (at p. 40 supra) acknowledged the originality of his idea as to the 
affinity between the Dodo and the Coliimbida, but there is no trace of this idea in any of Mr. Gould's 
pubhshed writings. It is true that in liis account of the Gnat/wdon, published March 1st, 1846 (see p. 40 y 
supra), Mr. G. was the first to assert its affinity to the Pigeons, and he at the same time incidentally adds 
that the form of the beak and nostrils " strongly remind one of the celebrated Dodo ;" a remark to which 
he was guided by a sentence wliich he quotes from my Report on Ornithology (British Association Reports, 
1844, p. 189), stating that Mr. Titian Peale "is said to have discovered a new bird allied to the Dodo, 
wliich he proposes to name Didunculus." But Mr. Gould never stated that the Gnathodon (or Bidunculus) 
was actually aUied to the Dodo, and no one in this country had ventured to assert the affinity of the latter 
bird to the Pigeons, until, in the end of 1846 or beginning of 1847, I succeeded in convincing several 
naturahsts that this affinity was real. Mr. Gould has poKtely informed me that a short time previously to 
the meeting of the Association " Dr. Melville showed me the dissected head of the 'Dodo from Oxford, 
together with skulls of several species of Columhidm, when their similarity of form was so apparent that I 
became a convert to its Columbidine affinity." 

' From the Hist, de rAcad. Key. des Sc. 1776, p.37, it appears that Pingre published, or at least wrote, a rela- 
tion of his voyage,in which he speaks of Solitaires, but I can find no notice of any such work among the published 
biographies of Pingre. 

2 The latitude of Pingre's observatory was 19° 40' 40" S., its longitude 4" 3' 26" (or 60° 51' 30" E.) of Paris. 

3 " Birds of Austraha, part xxii. Description of the (hiatlmion strigirostrk -. the bu-d which its discoverer, 
Mr. Titian Peale, supposed to be aUied to the Dodo, and proposed to name Bidunculus, which was first described 
by Sir W. Jarchne under the name of Gnathodon strigirostris, and which ]\Ir. Gould regards as being most nearly 
aUied to the family of Columbides." 





A. G. MELVILLE, M.D. Edin., M.R.C.S. 


In our eflPorts to determine the affinities of an extinct or fossil bird, by comparison of its 
osseous remains with the same parts in existing forms, vvc must be on our guard against 
relying too implicitly on the affinities which appear to be indicated by an incidental 
similarity in absolute- size of the things compared, overlooking the more important elements 
for guiding us to a correct conclusion, namely, correspondence of general form and minute 

Having obtained an approximate idea of the affinities by a comparison rightly instituted, 
we should next enquire whether the existing species of the type to which it has been referred 
afford a range in the form and relative proportions of important homologous parts, sufficiently 
wide to allow of its anomalies being admitted within the limits of the probable variations 
of the type. 

The too frequent disposition to discern in each newly-acquired form, recent or extinct, 
one of those links between now dissevered groups of animated beings, which, from the im- 
perfect nature of our conceptions we suppose to have been created, may lead the most 
truthfid observer into eiTor in determining its proper rank. The progress of discovery has 
indeed added members to some apparently defective families, but all attempts to fuse great 
conterminous groups together, have only more clearly illustrated the fundamental unity of 
organization, without destroying the multiplicity in that unity. 

As in Mammals, the cranium with its dental armature is the part of the skeleton from 
which the Palgeontologist derives the most certain indications as to the position of an extinct 
species ; so in Birds, the same segment of the osseous frame-work is that which preserves the 
typical characters, notwithstanding such alterations in other parts as may even annihilate 
the power of flight, that almost universal characteristic of the class. The variations in the 
number, size, and pattern of the teeth in Mammals, denoting essential differences in the 
nature of the food selected, are parallelled in birds by modifications in the form, size and 
relative proportions of the beak, and its horny sheath. 

The force and extent of the movements of the mandibles have an essential relation to 
the nature of the food, and the resistance to be overcome in its prehension. Hence the depth 
of the muscular fossae, and the height of the ridges giving attachment to the muscles of masti- 
cation, cannot but convey to us valuable information, which should further be correlated with 
that resulting from the indications of the amount of movement of the head on the trunk. 
The form of the palatine bone especially deserves attention, from its giving attachment to one 


of the principal muscles employed in mastication, and moreover bounding the posterior nares 
and subocular cell. Unfortunately this bone is generally deficient in fossil crania. 

The shape of the tympanic bone, and more particularly that of its inferior articular 
surface, are useful guides to classification. j\Iuch value is also to be attached to the form 
and position of the prefrontal (lacnjmal, of authors), and to the circumstance whether it be 
anchylosed to the cranium, or separate from it ; to the form and size of the posterior nasal 
fissures ; to the presence or absence of the vomer, and of the ossified septum narium. 

The general pneumaticity of the cranium, and the ratio in which the several elements 
participate in that property, furnish less distinctive characters ; the development of pneuma- 
ticity depending on many variable conditions. 

In the former part of this work the views expressed on the affinities of the Dodo by 
various distinguished zoologists and anatomists, are given at length ; of these. Professor Owen 
alone had the opportunity of studying the evidence furnished by the foot, which led him to 
regard the Dodo as an extremely modified form of the Raptorial order. In the catalogue of 
the fossil remains of Mammalia and Aves in the collection of the Royal College of Surgeons, 
published in 1845, apparently before he had seen the dissected foot, the Dodo is placed 
among the Cursorial, or Struthious birds, from some vague resemblances in the cere and 
advanced nostrils, to the corresponding parts in different members of that limited group. 

The merit due to Professor Reinhardt, who from the evidence afforded by the mutilated 
cranium in the Gottorf Museum, assigned to the Dodo, thus bandied about, a final resting 
place among the Pigeons, has been freely conceded by his fellow-labourer, Mr. Strickland ; 
who, however, from a minute and accurate comparison of the bones of the leg with those of 
other types, had arrived at the same goal, by a different, but equally certain path. The idea 
once attained served to elucidate the true relations of the cere and advanced tubular nostril, 
which had hitherto been misunderstood ; the disappearance of the mandibular horny sheath 
was also readily explamed by the facility with which it desquamates in other members of this 
group. Some learned ornithologists admit, that the correct interpretation of these external 
characters alone, might have led to the proper allocation of this strange and almost fabulous 

From anxiety to obtain the fullest information, application was made to Mr. Duncan, 
Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, for permission, which was liberally granted, to remove 
the integuments from the left side of the head of the Dodo, where they were most decayed, 
and the requisite dissection was judiciously performed by the Reader of Anatomy, Dr. Acland. 
During this procedui'e, the leading points of resemblance between the cranium and that of 
the Pigeons were pointed out by Mr. Strickland, who has kindly associated the writer with 
him, in the task of describing the remains of this extinct form and its affine, the Solitaire. 

My testimony, hence, is that only of an impartial observer with no hypothesis to defend, 
and who claims no share in the merit due to those who have succeeded in restoring the Dodo 
to its proper rank. 







Osteology of the Dodo. 
(Plates VIII., IX., X., XI., and XII.) 

The skull of the Dodo is larger than that of any existing raptorial bu-d, and greater 
though shorter than that of the Albatross ; its ratio to that of the Goura and Treron will be 
seen by a glance at Plate X. 

The skull is remarkable not only for its great absolute and relative size, but also, for the 
abbreviation of the cranium, whose length is to that of the upper mandible as one to two, 
and for the sudden rise of the frontal region above the compressed upper mandible ; the 
skull hence assumes, as it were, the form of a mallet, the head of which corresponds to the 
cranium, while the core, or bony termination of the mandibles, acts as a counterpoise. 

The shortening of the cranium is due to the small relative size of the eyes, and the 
consequent retrogression of the ethmoidal fossae, and atrophy of the proper interorbital septum. 

The elevation of the frontal region above the level of the upper mandible, is produced 
by a sudden expansion of the pneumatic diploii, tilting up the extremity of the mesial 
process of the premaxUlary, and the body of the nasal on each side, at an angle of 45°; 
while the abbreviated frontal is raised into a broadly rounded interorbital eminence. 

There is a similar development of the diploe, though in a less degree, in the Goura. The 
rise of the frontal region is in some Pigeons moi-e abrupt than in the Dodo, but is owing to a 
different cause ; namely, the great size of the orbit, and the relative slenderness of the bill. 



The upper mandible, viewed from above, presents on each side a shallow^ excavation 
extending from the core to the base of the maxilla ; the upper edge of the ramus of the lower 
jaw forms the chord of the concavity, which lodges the curved tubular nostril. This charac- 
teristic appearance is owing to the great compression of the lateral beams of the mandibular 
apparatus towards each other, by which they are, as it were, forced almost into contact 
beneath the upper stem ; their height being thus increased at the expense of their breadth ; 
while their oblique bases diverge towards their upper or terminal angles, and each beam 
resumes, so to speak, its original thickness. 

The length of the skull, measured from the upper border of the foramen magnum 
to the apex of the mandible, is 8 inches 2^ lines ; its breadth, a little in front of the 
post-orbital process, is 3 inches 8^ lines ; the greatest elevation of the cranium is 2 inches 
5 lines. The extreme length of the lower jaw is 7 inches 9 hues, and its span 2 inches 
10 lines. 

On a more minute examination, the skull of the Dodo will be found to present the 
typical characters of that segment in the Columbidse, which are : — 

I. A feebly uncinated upper core ; a character which at once distinguishes the Dodo 
from the Vulturidae on the one hand, and Cathartes on the other. 

II. An external nasal fissure extending from the base of the core, as far as, or beyond 
the resilient hinge formed by the upper beam of the mandibular apparatus at its junction with 
the cranium ; in all raptorial birds, the major part of the body of the nasal is placed in front 
of that line ; while in Pigeons the body is abbreviated and rises high on the frontal slope, the 
divergence of its limbs exposing to view, in certain genera, the turbinated ala of the ethmoid. 
The rasorial genus Pterocles presents a similar character ; hence it is not distinctive of the 

In the Vulturidae, the nasal scale is ossified to support the horny cere, and the nostril 
opens anteriorly by a narrow vertical orifice ; while in the Dodo, the elongated lanceolate 
nasal fissure extends to the foot of the frontal protuberance. 

III. The elevation of the base of the maxillary bone to meet the expanded foot of the 
abbreviated ecto-nasal hmb, and the obliquity of the zygoma, which must descend as it 
retrogrades from the junction of these bones, to the level of the inferior articular surface of the 
OS quadratum. The maxillary in Pigeons is subpyramidal with a triangular section ; the apex 
extending forwards, like a splint, on the inner side of the lateral process of the premaxillary ; 
the external surface slopes obliquely upwards and outwards fi'om the palatine aspect, and is 
more or less tumid ; the angle which it forms with the inner concave facet is united to the 
pyramidal foot of the ecto-nasal limb behind, the termination of the lateral premaxillary 
process being wedged between them anteriorly. The ecto-nasal Hmb passes upwards and 
backwards from the upper angle of the base of the maxilla ; the inner edge is prolonged into 
the antral plate, and is separated by a groove, on the floor of which occurs the pneumatic 
foramen, from the terminal border of the external surface, which ascends obliquely backwards, 
its upper angle passing into the slender zygoma. 

Ch. I.] OF THE DODO. 73 

The mandible thus presents a subtriangular surface, of greater or less extent, and more 
or less tumid, which is covered by the palatal membrane ; it is continued backwards by 
the external fibrous wall of the subocular cell, extending from the root of the zygoma to the 
free outer margin of the palatine crest. The surfaces of opposite sides, separated mesially by 
the posterior nares, form a wedge subsiding anteriorly towards the nasal orifice, and descending 
between the rami of the lower jaw, which are so curved that their convexity mounts into 
the obtuse angle formed between the zygoma, and the lower margin of the lateral facet of the 
maxilla ; which is indicated in the Dodo by the upper caruncular ridge, separating the palatal 
mucous membrane from the cere, and extending forwards to the lower angle of the nostril. 
In those grallatorial and aquatic birds, as the Ibis, Spoonbill, and Albatross, which have a 
similar arrangement, the margin of the upper mandible overhangs that of the lower ; and in 
the Albatross the posterior part of the dentary bone is lodged in a deep groove, between the 
palatine wedge and the acute margin of the mandible. 

IV. The absence of an ossified vomer separating the posterior nares ; this is also generally 
deficient in the Gallinse ; in the Vultm'idse it exists in the form of a narrow lanceolate plate, 
but is wanting in Cathartes. 

V. The septum narium is generally membranous in Pigeons ; it exhibits however traces 
of ossification at its attachment above, in the Calmias nicoharica, and Lopholamus antarciicus ; 
in the Vulturidae it is wholly ossified, a small perforation only existing in certain species ; in 
Cathartes it exists, although reduced in length, by the removal of its anterior part in the 
formation of the common nasal vestibule. In the Dodo it is completely membranous. 

VI. The form of \\s& palatine bone in Pigeons is characteristic, and diSers from that in the 
Rasores, in the presence of the horizontal plate or crest, which affords an increased surface 
for the origin of the internal pterygoid muscle ; and of the descending palatal process, which 
supports the fold of mucous membrane forming the lateral boundary of the posterior nares. 
In the Vulturidse, the crest is much broader, indicating the greater strength of the muscle 
arising from it ; the sphenoidal plate is narrower from the unexpanded condition of the 
rostnim ; the nasal process is much contracted longitudinally, whereas in Pigeons it extends 
forwards along the inner margin of the palatine stem, to near its attachment ; the palatine 
process is less elongated, and the inflected portion of it, in Pigeons, is entirely absent ; the 
palatine stem is straight in Vultures, arched with the concavity inwards in Pigeons. In 
Cathartes the stem is also curved ; the nasal process is more extended than in Vultiu-es, but 
less elevated than in Pigeons ; the crest however indicates the raptorial character by its 
great breadth. 

We shall afterwards see how the form of this bone, in the Dodo, is modified by the 
compression of the mandible and the abbreviation of the rostriun, without departing from 
the Columbine type. 

VII. The shape of the inferior articular surface of the tympanic bone, although it varies 
in difierent genera of the Columbidse, is distinguished from that in the Vultm-idse, by the 


greater transverse diameter of the internal, and by the greater breadth of the external condyle 
which is flat, or sHghtly convex, and subcircular. In the Viilturidse and Cathartes, the latter 
is narrow and sigmoidal ; convex in front, concave behind longitudinally, and rounded trans- 
versely. In Cathartes the inner condyle is grooved at the base externally ; and the trochlear 
ridcfe is more oblique than in ordinary Pigeons. In the Dodo, its form is similar to that in 
the typical genera of the Columbidee, and differs from that in the large Vultures, with which, 
from a correspondence in absolute size, it may be more readily compared. 

The absence of the posterior superior condyle in the typical Rasores, and its presence in 
Pterocles, approximates, so far, this aberrant genus to the Columbidas. 

VIII. The subtriangular body of \hs, prefrontal is dove-tailed between the nasal bone and 
antorbital process of the frontal, which advances along its outer edge to the lacrymal groove ; 
in the adult it is anchylosed to these bones above, and internally to the highly developed alae 
of the ethmoid ; the prefronto-ethmoidal fissure being in most Pigeons wholly obliterated. 
In Goura, a slender style separates its inner margin from the nasal, so that it is inserted by 
gomphosis, into a deep semi-elliptical notch on the broad antorbital process. It is not subject 
to removal by maceration, or such forces as woidd almost inevitably break off the upper 
mandible : and its occurrence in the fractured cranium of the Solitau'e, may be regarded as 
presumptive evidence of the Columbine affinities of that extinct form. 

In Pterocles, the prefrontal is anchylosed, but I have not been able to ascertain its 
relation to the antorbital process ; from the narrowness of its frontal aspect, it is not probable 
that this process extends along its outer margin. In the typical Rasores, the prefrontal is 
free, and projects greatly outwards ; its inferior process is reduced to a slender curved style ; 
and the ate of the ethmoid are wanting, while in Pterocles they are greatly developed, and 
the prefronto-ethmoidal fissure is obliterated. The prefrontal is uuanchylosed, even in the 
adult, in all raptorial buds, except the aberrant genus Cathartes ; the free external angle 
supports the os superciliare ; the prefronto-ethmoidal fissure is large and persistent ; and the 
antorbital process forms only a shght angular separation, between the shallow notch lodging 
the apex of the prefrontal, and the deeply concave supercihary margin, which sweeps 
rapidly outwards and downwards to the post-orbital process. 

In Cathartes, the prefrontal is fii-mly united to the cranium; the supra-orbital mem- 
brane is completely ossified, and gives increased breadth to the forehead. The olfactory 
foramen opens into the apex of the infundibular turbinated ala of the ethmoid ; the inferior 
ala is anchylosed to the prefrontal below, but the prefronto-ethmoidal fissure remains. 

IX. The size of the croiophyte imjiression , although variable in different species, according 
to the resistance to be overcome, is very minute when compared with that in the Vultmidae, 
or even Cathartes ; in the Dodo it is exceedingly small, and is not compensated by an 
increase in the area of the internal temporal surface. 

X. The great extent of the digastric impression in Pigeons and in the Dodo, is well 
contrasted with its small size in raptorial birds. The Rasores in this respect, as might be 
anticipated, resemble the Columbidse. 

Ch. L] of the dodo. 75 

XL The presence of a single mesial supra-occipital aperture above the foramen magniun, 
for the transmission of a vein, which arises from the muscles of the neck, and joins the posterior 
cerebellar sinus. Among the Raptores, it occurs in some Owls, but I have not seen it in any 
other family of birds. Its co-existence in the Dodo with other indications of affinity to the 
Columbidge, shows the value of apparently trivial characters in determining the position of 
an anomalous form. 

XII. The generalpnemnaticitii/ of the cranial vault is gi'eater in Pigeons, and the prefrontals 
and sphenoidal rostrum are usually much more expanded than in the Vultiu-idae and Cathartes. 
In these respects the Dodo resembles the Columbidse, and differs remarkably in the bullose 
appearance of the prefrontal, and in the breadth of the rostrum, from the typical raptorial 
birds. The Pterocles also approaches the Columbidae in these characters. 

XIII. In the lower jaw, the curvature of the rami ; their union at a more or less angular, 
short and ascending, symphysis ; the separation of the dentary, and, in some cases to a late 
period, of the opercular elements ; the presence of the interangular foramen in certain genera ; 
the large triangular digastric, or basal, facet ; the small area of the temporal and pterygoid 
impressions ; and the differences in the form of the articular smface, corresponding to those 
ali-eady alluded to, in the inferior surface of the tympanic, distinguish the lower mandible, in 
the Columbidse from that in the Vulturidae and Cathartes : in the latter, however, the lower 
jaw is more curved than in the less aberrant Raptores. We shall afterwards see how these 
important differences are repeated in the Dodo. The development of the basal angles of the 
digastric facet into the posterior and internal angular processes, so characteristic of the 
typical Rasores, is observed in Pterocles. 

The family characters of the skuU in the Columbidse, just enumerated, are derived from 
the consideration of parts, important either in a physiological, or morphological, point of 
view. One or more of them may be absent in abeiTant members, or be common to chfferent 
types ; but the whole, or a majority of them, occiu-ring in the skull of an extinct form, woiUd 
justify us in assigning to it a place among this interesting and extensive group. 

Before proceeding to a more minute description of the skull of the Dodo, and to a com- 
parison of it with that of other Pigeons, we may recapitulate shortly, those important differences 
which warrant us in restricting such comparisons to the members of the Columbine group. 

The skidl of the Dodo differs from that of the Vultm-idEe, in the relatively small and 
feebly uncinated core ; in the elongation of the external nasal orifice, and absence of the 
ossified scale ; in the great relative size of the maxillary bone ; in the obliquity of the 
zygoma ; in the form of the mandibular siu-face of the tympanic ; in the form of the palatine 
bone ; in the absence of the ossified septum narium ; in the absence of the vomer ; in the 
form, and minute configuration, of the lower jaw ; in the anchylosis of the prefrontal, and 
obliteration of the prefronto-ethmoidal fissure ; in the greater breadth of the interorbital 
region, and absence of the os superciliare ; in the small area of the crotophyte impressions, 
and the great relative size of the digastric surface ; in the existence of the mesial supra- 



occipital foramen ; in the great pneumaticity of the cranium ; in the ratio of the upper 
mandible to the cranium ; in the retrogression of the ethmoidal fossae ; in the absence 
of the frontal protuberance ; and of the lateral excavations of the upper mandiljle. Such, 
then, are some of the more important and characteristic distinctions ; without entering into 
superfluous details, regarding the diJSerences in the minute configuration of similar parts, as 
these may vary even in the same group. 

The Cathartes resembles the Dodo, in the absence of the ossified vomer; in the anchy- 
losis of the prefrontal ; in the retrogi-ession of the ethmoidal fossa3 ; in the breadth of the 
interorbital region ; and in the curvature of the lower jaw. It differs, however, in other 
more important characters, common to it with the typical Vultm-es, and is peculiar in 
possessing the nasal vestibule, characteristic of the Cathartine modification of the raptorial type. 

From the typical Rasores, the Dodo difiiers, in the elongation of the external nasal 
orifice ; in the greater development of the maxilla ; in the obliquity of the zygoma ; in the 
greater complexity of the palatine bone ; in the double mastoid condyle of the tympanic ; 
in the absence of the posterior and internal angular processes of the basal facet of the lower 
jaw ; in the anchylosis of the prefrontal, and great development of its inferior process ; in the 
presence of the alse of the ethmoid ; in the retrogression of the ethmoidal fossae ; in the 
great pneumaticity of the prefrontal, and of the sphenoidal rostrum ; and in the absence of the 
mesial supra-occipital foramen. 

The skull of Pterocles resembles that of the Dodo in the same degree as it approaches 
the type of the Columbidse. 

From the Insessores, the Dodo is at once distinguished by the form of the palatine 
bone ; by the absence of the vomer ; by the elongation of the external nasal fissure ; by the 
obhquity of the zygoma ; and by the relation of the antorbital process to the prefrontal. 

It would be useless to state the essential differences between the skull of the Dodo, and 
that hi the different families of the Grallatorial and Natatorial orders, as no one is likely to 
suppose that it has any affinity with either of these groups. 

I now proceed to describe the skull of the Dodo in greater detail. 

The jiosterior subelliptical facet of tlie cranium, is formed by tlie occipital bone; its greater diameter 
is transverse, and measures two inches and eight lines and a half; and its lesser, one incli and seven lines 
and a half. It presents an upper crescentic segment, witli a vertical plane, embracing in its concavity a 
lozenge-shaped surface, which inchues obhquely downwards and forwards at an angle of 125°. 

The upper convex margin corresponds to the supra-occipital ridge, continued on each side into the 
convex incurving border of the paroccipital process, which projects outwards, forming the posterior wall of 
the tympanic cavity. The infra-occipital ridge, forming the central moiety of the concave edge, overhangs 
the recess perforated by the foramen magnimi, like the dripstone of a Gothic arch ; a hne drawn from its 
corbal-hke origin outwards, on each side, to the inferior angle of the paroccipital process, indicates the 
remamder of this boundary ; along which the vertical supra-occipital surface is broadly rounded off into the 
rhomboidal fossa, occupying the lateral angle of the lozenge. Tliis depression is bounded externally by 

Ch. I.] OF THE DODO. ' 77 

the lower sharp edge of the internal waU of the tympanic cavity, arching from the paroccipital angle to 
the posterior border of the basilar pyi-amidal protuberance, which projects vertically downwards ; a rough 
prominent ridge, notched in the centre, ascends, incUniug inwards and backwards along its internal edge, 
and with its fellow forms the anterior boundary of the occipital facet, indicating nearly the division between 
the sphenoid and occipital bones. The supra-occipital plate presents, in the centre, a triangular, broad and 
depressed cerebellar elevation ; the truncated apex is on a level with the infra-occipital ridge, a line above 
which it is perforated mesiaUy by a short canal, half a Hne in diameter, opening internally immediately 
within the upper margin of the foramen magnum : a slight crest traverses the median line, becoming more 
apparent as the convexity subsides towards the base, the angles of which extend to the most concave part 
of the supra-occipital ridge ; below it enters the furrow leading to the orifice just mentioned. Tlie large 
oblong surface, external to the central protuberance on each side, is divided into two subequal portions, by 
a convexity directed downwards and inwards from the origin of the superior occipital ridge to that of the 
inferior, it corresponds to the semicircular canals witliin; on the left side it is widest xind most promi- 
nent superiorly, and subsides towards the lateral venous groove ; the floor of the inner segment is slightly 
elevated towards the supra-occipital ridge, but on the right side it is raised into a triangular convexity, 
more prominent than the canalicular elevation, to which it is parallel, separated only by a shght digital 
impression. The lateral venous groove passes obUquely inwards and upwards, above the infra-occipital 
ridge, and terminates at the margin of the cerebellar protuberance, in a short oval canal perforating the 
cranium, two Hues and a half above the foramen magnum ; and opening upwards, internally, at the margin 
of the cerebellar fossa ; it transmits the lateral venous sinus. The groove contracts in the centre of its 
course, and is there covered by a narrow osseous bridge on the left side ; a small canal lodging a muscular 
veiu opens downwards into the internal segment. Externally, it curves round the origin of the infra- 
occipital ridge ; a narrow tract, one line in breadth, separating its termination fi-om the groove for the bulb 
of the jugular vein, whicli the lateral sinus joins. 

The area of the strongly pitted muscular imjjression, on each side, is elliptical ; its inner angle is pro- 
longed inwards across the base of the cerebellar protuberance ; the outer occupies the upper part of the 
paroccipital process, the lower portion of which is smooth. In its centre it extends from the venous groove 
to the supra-occipital ridge, and the surface is increased by the elevations already described. The cerebellar 
eminence is smooth and polished. From the notch between the paroccipital process and mastoid, inwards 
for half an inch, the digastric and occipital impressions are separated only by a smooth convex edge ; more 
internally, a prolongation of the parietal tract intervenes, the apex extending to the canahcular elevation • 
where the supra-occipital ridge originates. 

This ridge is broad and rough externally ; it ascends on each side, becoming narrow and rounded, 
following the undulation of the surface to the angle of the cerebellar elevation ; from thence it descends to 
near the mesial line, over wliich it arches : it presents a slight notch at the upper and inner angle of the 
canalicular convexity, from wluch a groove leads outwards and downwards to a canal perforating tiiat 
eminence, and traversing the cranial diploe to open on the lateral facet below the superior pneumatic fora- 
men ; it transmits a vein from the integuments of the cranium. The supra-occipital ridge is defined by the 
subsidence of the posterior surface, not by its elevation above the parietal tract. 

The convex margin of the paroccipital process increases in breadtli inferiorly, and is rough and flat- 
tened, giving origin to the Biventer maxilla muscle ; a strong ligament passing from its lower angle, 
forwards and inwards to the apex of the basilar facet of the ramus of the lower jaw, is still present. 

The infra-occipital ridge is broad, rough, and prominent externally, the lateral venous groove bending 
round its origin ; the rouglmess subsides internally, as it passes into the cerebellar eminence. The foramen 


magnum has an ovate form, subangular above ; it is six lines and a half high, and nearly five lines broad, 
inferiorly; the vestibular elevation in the interior of the cranium, projects on each side into the area of the 
foramen beneath the centre, rendering it fiddle-shaped, but to a greater extent on the left than on the right 
side ; it is four Knes in width where thus constricted. Its mai'giu is separated from the infi-a-occipital 
ridge aU round by a groove, which widens below from the inclination forwards of the plane of the foramen ; 
its breadth is one line and one-third above mesially, and tliree lines and a half below. Tliis recess lodges 
the great posterior cerebellar sinus, which discharges itseK by a large branch perforating the posterior 
occipito-atlantal Ugament, to form the bulb of the internal jugular vein. 

The occipital condyle is subpedunculated ; its axis is directed downwards and backwards, so that its 
posterior sm-face, above, is nearly in the same vertical plane as the margin of the foramen magnum ; 
the articular surface is separated by a groove from the peduncle laterally, but is conthiued on it inferiorly, 
indicating a considerable amount of downward flexion of the head on the neck ; its form is subhemispherical, 
flattened, and notched above by the prolongation of the fossa for the medulla oblongata ; its posterior surface 
is mai'ked by a faint median vertical groove ; its height is three hnes, and its breadth four Unes. 

The lateral basilar fossa presents posteriorly the shallow oval concavity for the bulb of the jugular vein ; 
it is most distinct on the right side ; its inner angle is separated from the groove surrounding the foramen 
magnum by a convex ridge, it is directed outwards and forwards to the foramen lacerum posterius, grooving 
its inner edge ; and is four lines and a half long, and two and a half broad. The outer boundary of the 
deep elliptic fossa, four Hnes and a half long and two broad, common to the posterior lacerated and carotic 
foramina, is formed by the inner wall of the tympanic cavity, the lower sharp edge of which, concave infe- 
riorly, extends as already indicated from the paroccipital angle to the pyramidal protuberance ; its inner 
margin is more deeply concave than the external, tliin and notched beliind, tliick and rounded in front. 
The fossa is divided by a roughened transverse convexity, forming the floor of the vestibule leading to the 
foramen ovale and f. rotundum ; the foramen caroticimi, transmitting the internal carotid and its accom- 
panying sinus, leads forwards and inwards from the anterior angle ; wliile, from the posterior, passes upwards, 
curving forwards round the vestibule just mentioned, a canal, wliich transmits an artery and accompanying 
vein, with the glosso-pharyngeal and sympathetic nerves ; its inferior orifice corresponds in part to the fora- 
men lacerum posterius of mammals ; its outer wall is perforated, a Hue above its margin, by a rounded 
aperture leading to a broad groove on the base of the paroccipital process anteriorly ; it transmits the 
venous sinus of the membraua tympani to the internal jugular vein. The condyloid foramen for the 
passage of the hypoglossal nerve, perforates the base of the peduncle of the occipital condyle, one line and 
one-third external to the foramen magimm ; one line and a half from it, towards the carotic canal, is the 
large aperture, transmitting the pneumogastric and spinal accessory nerves. Ttvo minute apertures sepa- 
rated by an osseous line, and probably giving exit to small venules, perforate the lower part of the inter- 
space between the condyloid and pneumogastric foramina on the left side ; on the right side they are a line 
and a half apart. 

The lateral fossa is bounded in front, by the posterior convex surface of the triangular basilar pyramid, 
whose elongated inner edge extends inwards, slopmg backwards to the groove, uniting the inner and ante- 
rior angles of the fossa of each side beneath the occipital condyle. The apex and narrow outer surface are 
rough : a scabrous tubercle is developed at the foot of the inner edge, separated from its fellow by a smooth 
mesial notch. The breadth of the supra-occipital plate, between the mastoid notches, is two inches eight Unes 
and a half ; from the median line obliquely to the mastoid notch, it measures one inch eight Hnes and a haK ; 
its height, mesially, is nine lines and a half; and its thickness towards the occipital ridge is five lines and a 
half above, and one line and a half below. The distance between the inferior angles of the paroccipital 

Ch. I.] OF THE DODO. 79 

processes, is one incli six lines and a half; and its depth from the upper margin of the foramen magnum, 
ten lines and a half; from the mesial line obliquely to the angle of the paroccipital process, is one inch 
two lines. The longitudinal diameter of the inferior segment is eleven lines and two-thirds; and the 
span of its lateral boundary is eight Hues and a half. Tlie span of the anterior margin between the apices 
of the basilar protuberances, is eight lines and a half. The basi-occipital is three lines and a half tliick. 

The inferior facet of the cranium exhibits, on each side, the great orbito-temporal excavation, separated 
by the short but broad and tumid sphenoid, which expands to join the basi-occipital posteriorly ; it is most 
constricted at the junction of its posterior and two anterior thirds, opposite the foramen opticum; it 
increases in breadth, as it advances, to where it is joined by the inferior ethmoidal ala on each side ; it then 
rapidly becomes narrower, and forms a compressed plate projecting forwards into the inferior nasal fissure. 

The inflated lower ala of the etlunoid coalesces externally with the bullose inferior extremity of the 
prefrontal ; which, from the compression of the cranium anteriorly, is prolonged forwards ; a deep narrow 
notch, leading into the olfactory fossa, separating it from the rostrum. The greatest width of the sphenoid, 
between the outer margins of the tympanic tubes, is one inch, eleven hnes and a half; its extreme length 
is two inches, six lines and a half ; where most constricted it is six lines and two thirds broad. The distance 
between the outer sui-faces of the inferior extremities of the prefi'ontals amounts to one inch, eight hnes 
and a haK ; the thickness of the sphenoid at the foramen opticum is four lines and a half. 

The lozenge-shaped concavity on the sphenoid, for the insertion of the fleshy fasciculi of the Recti 
capitis aiitici muscles, is deepened posteriorly and laterally by the anterior surface of the basilar protu- 
berance, which is dii'ected, on each side, inwards and backwards, sloping outwards as it descends to the 
apex ; anteriorly and laterally a slight ridge separates it from a venous impression on the side of the 
sphenoid. The anterior angle projects in the form of a small, free, triangular plate, curving downwards 
beneath the transversely ovate common orifice of the Eustacliian tubes ; the posterior corresponds to the 
median notch between the inner angles of the basilar protuberances. This sui'face is distinctly pitted on 
each side of an irregular raphe : and its antero-posterior diameter is eight Hnes. 

A groove, two Hues broad, running forwards from the orifice of the Eustachian tubes, impresses the 
sphenoid where most constricted, and ceases after a course of four lines with a rounded termination ; its 
edges are sharp, and separate it from the lateral venous impressions ; it is Hned by the sinus leading to the 
Eustachian tubes. 

Anteriorly the sphenoid is raised into an obtuse mecHan ridge, between the flattened oblong surfaces 
on wliich the palatine and pterygoid bones glide, in the movements of the upper mandible. 

The inferior aspect is concave upwards, deepest opposite the foramen opticum, declinmg in front to 
the lowest part of the rostrum, and behind to the under surface of the occipital condyle, which is in the 
same horizontal plane as the former. 

The lateral aspect of the cranium is occupied by the large orbito-temporal fossa, wliich presents the 
form of an irregular, four-sided pyramidal excavation ; the floor and inferior wall of wliich are removed. 
Its different sui-faces converge to the optic foramen ; the posterior is of less height than the anterior, the 
upper descending as it retrogrades. 

The anterior subconcave wall, is formed in its anterior moiety by the prefrontal, and by the united 
turbinated and inferior alfe of the ethmoid ; posteriorly it is constituted by the enormously tliick, but con- 
tracted, interorbital septum ; it slopes gradually inwards and backwards, and above is rounded off into the 
roof of the orbit. A Hue drawn from the post-orbital process to the optic foramen, divides the orbital from 
the narrow, depressed temporal fossa, which inclines forwards, as it descends inwards. The posterior trian- 




gular surface is broken by the projection of the anterior wall of the tympanic cavity, it slopes backwards 
and outwards ; its upper margin extends to the post-temporal process of the mastoid ; the lower is horizontal 
and directed to the inferior angle of the paroccipital process. 

The roof of the orbit is formed by the frontal, and by the ali-sphenoid, for a short space anterior to the 
temporal fossa ; a Hue drawn from the optic foramen, through the foramen ovale, to the posterior tympanic 
articular facet, will indicate the lower margin of the ali-sphenoid. The inferior boundary of the mastoid corres- 
ponds to a hne (hawn from the notch between it and the paroccipital process, tlirough the superior tympanic 
aperture to the inner angle of the root of the post-temporal process, where it comes into apposition with the 
external border of the ali-sphenoid ; thence the suture passes forwards, inclining upwards to the post-orbital 
process. The division between the sphenoid and the ex-occipital foUows the course of the canal wliich 
runs beliind the fenestra ovalis ; its upper angle is anterior to the inferior tympanic articular surface, 
wliich is developed on the ex-occipital ; below it passes internal to the Eustachian tube, cutting tlirough the 
elliptic fossa, common to the foramen caroticum and f. lacemm posterius, and lastly bends transversely 
inwards, intersecting the foot of the basilar protuberance. The diminished area of the interorbital septum, 
winch is only about six lines in diameter, is remarkable, and is due to the smaU size of the eyes, wliich are 
amply protected by the great outward projection of the roof of the orbit posteriorly. The proper septum is 
reduced to the small space, intervening between the base of the olfactory fossse and the interval separating 
the foramina optica, in the antero-posterior diameter ; it is encroached on above by the expanded froutals, 
and below by the inflated rostrum. From the abbreviation of the cranium, and consequent shortening 
of the frontal, the orbital vault is relatively very small ; it is bent down abruptly anteriorly, nearly at right 
angles, and, as it were, pressed backwards ; the angle of flexure corresponding to the supra-orbital notch, 
from wliich the roof increases in breadth as it retrogrades oblicjuely dowTiwards. 

A line drawn from the supra-orbital to the temporal notch would cut off' an elongated triangular 
segment; the hypothenuse corresponding to the convex, thick, and rough supra-orbital margin, and the 
base to the post-orbital process. The great breadth of the mterorbital region, which is continued back- 
wards diminishing very gradually to the mastoid notch, and the flattening down, as it were, of the roof of 
the orbit beliind the eye ; together with the great elevation of the forehead above the surface of the man- 
dible, and its contraction in front of the supra-orbital notch, are remarkable peculiarities in the head of 
this extinct form. The roof of the orbit is arched transversely, but more flatly concave longitudinally than 
the anterior portion of the orbital vault ; the greatly increased expansion of the diploe of the frontal inter- 
nally, causes its surface to descend rajiidly into that of the interorbital septum ; while from the retrogression 
of the olfactory fossae, the anterior wall slopes vei7 gradually backwards. A hne drawn fi-om the inferior 
extremity of the pre&'ontal to the post-orbital process, measuring one inch and seven lines, ascends 
obliquely backwards at an angle of 45° ; and a plane extended inwards fi-om it to the optic foramen would 
limit the orbit posteriorly and iuferiorly. The depth of the vault from the supra-orbital notch, is one inch 
one line. 

Va& foramen optimm, situated at the apex of the triangularly pyramidal orbital fossa, is equidistant 
from the anterior and posterior sui'faces of the cranium, and from the supra-orbital and mastoid notches ; 
its circular contour is notched above by a vascular groove, and its relatively small diameter is two lines and a 
half. Its floor is four lines and a half from the basilar surface, and its roof one inch ten lines and a half 
beneath the highest point of the frontal protuberance. The anterior edges of the foramina of opposite sides, 
are separated by an interval of six lines and two-thirds, corresponding to the broad posterior border of the 
interorbital septum, which is convex transversely, and concave vertically. 

The ant-orbital foramen, for the transmission of the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve and 

Ch. I.] OF THE DODO. 81 

accompanying vessels, is eight lines distant from the foramen opticum, in a direction forwards and upwards, 
and midway between it and the ant-orbital process. Its form is irregularly transversely ovate ; a ventricose 
projection on the left side, encroaches on its area inferiorly. The posterior expanded border of the inferior 
etlmioidal ala, is three Hnes and a half broad. The prefronto-etlunoidal fissure is obliterated ; a narrow, 
tripartite chink, shghtly wider in the centre, alone remaining ; the inner branch of which probably corres- 
ponds to the notch between the turbinated and inferior alse, the evasation of the latter to form the large 
olfactory fossa being the cause of the disappeai'ance of this fissure, wliich in other birds transmits the 
superior diverticulum of the subocular sinus ; the upper indicates the union of the prefrontal to the turbi- 
nated ala ; from its extremity an interrupted groove, more distinct on the right side, is directed downwards 
and outwards at an acute angle, to the upper margin of the lacrymal groove, defining the antorbital process 
as it runs along the outer margin of the body of the prefrontal. 

Tlie tumid prefrontal coalesces below with the inferior ala, and is three Unes and two-thirds wide ; its 
broad outer convex surface, beneath the antorbital process, presents the lacrymal groove, more depressed at 
its lower margin ; it runs forward, inclining inwards, to the outer margin of the olfactory fossa, and is 
eight lines in length, and tlu'ee and a half broad ; in the inner part of its course, it rests on a quadrate 
process of the prefrontal, wliich projects beyond the level of the anterior margin, and comes into contact 
with the convexity of the turbinated ala; this projection is separated by a notch, from the prominent inner 
angle of the body of the prefrontal above, and below from its inferior extremity ; which is slightly flattened 
and roughened opposite the zygoma, with which it would probably come into contact, in the great domiward 
flexion of the upper mandible. The ant-orbital process is thick and rough externally, and contracts in its 
anterior moiety, into a narrow style, whose apex is at the upper border of the lacrymal groove. From the 
supra-orbital notch a deep capillary fissure, with small lateral offsets, passes backwards and inwards, on the roof 
of the orbit for six hnes ; it probably lodged a small branch derived from a cutaneous artery. The supercihary 
margin is perforated about six lines in front of the post-orbital process, by two small foramina on the left 
side, but is notched on the right for the transmission of the supra-orbital arteries and veins to the scalp ; 
internally they correspond to a groove running half an inch in front of, and parallel to, the posterior border 
of the orbit ; it winds round a tumid projection of the cUploe of the ala-sphenoid a little above the foramen 
opticum, which it enters, grooving its roof, and disappearing as it curves backwards. A second groove, for 
the nasal vessels, runs backwards and upwards from the ant-orbital foramen, to join the supra-orbital furrow 
above the prominence just mentioned. Numerous small apertures are seen along the course of these 
channels ; a faint vascular groove runs from the prefronto-ethmoidal fissure to the centre of the nasal 
one ; between the latter and the foramen opticum, and bounded laterally by the pecuhar pneumatic buUse, is a 
quadrate space, variously marked by vascular impressions. 

The temporal fossa descends obhquely forwards, sloping inwards, and terminates interiorly at a deep 
digital cavity, impressing the ali-sphenoid behind the optic foramen. It opens superiorly by the small naiTow 
oblong temporal notch, five Unes in depth, and three and a half in breadth ; bounded in front by the short, 
thick, post-orbital process, slightly recurved at tlie apex, and beliind by the post-temporal plate of the mas- 
toid. The small crotophyte impression occupies the temporal gorge, and extends outwards, as the latter is 
broadly rounded off into the upper facet, in the form of a crescent, whose limbs extend on the triangular 
surface of the post-orbital process, and on the quadrantal post-temporal plate, which is traversed by a shght 
chord-hke ridge. The internal temporal impression has the figure of a right-angled triangle ; below, a 
narrow smooth tract separates its base from the surface for the 31. Levator ossis quadrati ; the undulated 
hypothenuse ascends forwards to the root of the post-orbital process, its upper third being separated by a faint 
ridge from the external impression ; its surface subsides, anteriorly, about a hne beneath the smooth and 


polished elevated area of tlie orbital fossa, the posterior rounded edge of which forms its anterior margin, 
which is seven hnes long ; its base is four lines and one-tliird ; for a line above it, the surface is, as it were, 
scooped out. 

A smooth tract, corresponding to the post-orbital vascular flexus, and leading to the foramen rotundo- 
ovale, occupies the remainder of the floor of the temporal fossa : it terminates below, at the convex pro- 
jection of the tympanic tube, which runs horizontally outwards and backwards ; its anterior wall is formed 
by a curved plate, wliich, after covering the inferior efferent pneumatic cells and the Eustachian tube, is 
attached to the outer margin of the sphenoid lozenge and basilar protuberance ; behind wliich, it presents 
a deep triangular incision, bounded below by the thin, inferiorly concave edge ; formed by its junction, at an 
acute angle, with the inner wall. Its orifice is in a hue with the post-temporal process ; the edge is deeply 
concave, the lower angle being prolonged into a sharp, sUghtly incurved styloid process. The tympanic 
convexity subsides internally towards the digital fossa, wliich is the deepest part of the lateral facet, con- 
taining in fi'ont the optic foramen, and belund, the subdivisions of \h& foramen lacerum anteri-us, perforating 
the thinnest part of the cranial parietes. The foramen for the transmission of the oculomotor and abducens 
nerves, occurs immediately behind the lower moiety of the optic foramen ; it is longitudinally oval, one line 
and a half long, and one hne liigli ; it is directed obliquely upwards, and divided internally into tliree aper- 
tures by delicate osseous threads : the posterior one is the orifice of a canal, four lines and a half long, 
which lodges the sixth nerve ; the two anterior give passage to the divisions of the tliii'd pair, and run into 
a vertical groove separated by a ridge from that which is continued upwards from the posterior orifice, both 
terminate on a level with the upper margin of the foramen opticum ; at the apex of the anterior is situated the 
minute orifice of a canal, two Unes long, for the transmission of the patheticus nerve ; it is capable of admitting 
a fine bristle ; a groove passes forwards and upwards from it. At the lower angle, between the optic foramen 
and that for the tliird nerve, is the aperture of a very slender canal, opening internally into the sella turcica, 
and probably conducting outwards, a twig from the ento-carotid artery. Above the tympanic convexity, 
and three lines and a haK from the posterior border of the foramen opticum, is the rounded, sharp-edged 
aperture, one hne in diameter, for the transmission of the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve ; a 
groove, concave downwards, leads forwards across the patheticus foramen, and apparently enters the optic 
outlet, beliind the supra-orbital furrow. The vertically oval orifice, foramen rotiindo-ovale, giving passage 
to the second and third divisions of the fifth pair, occurs midway between it and the margin of the osseous 
tympanic aperture ; it is one hne and a half high, and one wide ; an osseous thread separates from its base 
anteriorly, a minute foramen. 

The digital fossa is separated by a sKglit ridge from a concavity on the side of the most constricted 
part of the sphenoid, beneath the foramen opticum ; this depression is produced by the great trunk of the 
internal maxillary vein, it slopes inwards below, and is separated fi-om its fellow by the narrow, sharp-edged 
gutter on the inferior surface, leading to the common orifice of the Eustacluan tubes ; its superior border is 
convex upwards ; in the posterior triangular tract between it, and the edge of the digital fossa, are two 
foramina ; the anterior and upper is the smallest, and longitudinally oval ; the posterior and larger has the 
same shape, but its greatest diameter is at right angles to that of the former. A narrow band, one hne in 
breadth, separates them, and presents two capillary apertm-es above, but supports below the minute, thin 
and flexible upwardly-curved style, representing the articular peduncle for the pterygoid ; wliich does not exist 
on the right side. These foramina transmit communicating branches from the internal maxillary ai-tery to the 
ento-carotid, with their accompanjdng venous sinuses ; the canals to which they lead pass backwards in the 
septum between the Eustachian tube and the efferent pneumatic cells, and open into the carotid canal as it 
curves inwards to unite with its fellow. 

Ch. I.] OF THE DODO. 83 

Tlic triangular sm-face for the attacluneut of the M. Levator ossis (juadrati, occupies the digital fossa, 
extending round the jJosterior border of the foramen opticum ; it is prolonged outwards over the tympanic 
convexity, surrounded by a smooth depressed marginal tract of the latter, corresponding to a vascular 
circle. The irregular tympanic excavation is bounded above by the mastoid, and behind by the parocci- 
pital process. The post-temporal process of the mastoid is formed by a thick quadrantal plate projecting 
outwards with an inclination forwards, behind the temporal fossa; its outer edge is rough, and gives 
attacluneut to the external mandibular ligament, and viewed laterally projects downwards and forwards like 
a styloid process in front of the articular cavity for the anterior superior condyle of the tympanic. This 
ca\ity impresses the base and posterior surface of the post-temporal plate, thinning it internally; its antero- 
posterior and transverse diameters, are three Hues and a half. The mastoid process is a longitudinally 
extended, low, obtuse and thick pyramidal plate, projecting downwards so as to conceal the large quadrate 
superior pneumatic foramen, internal to it and between the tympanic articular cavities ; its external smooth 
facet is separated by a shght ridge from the small posterior one, which is grooved at its base, and separated 
by a notch from the paroccipital process ; its inner surface is reticulate, and forms with the external a sharp 
edge. The inferior articular facet for the reception of the postero-superior condyle of the tympanic is 
oblong, tliree hues and two thirds long and two lines and two thirds deep, and composed of a smaller inner 
and a larger posterior segment, at right angles to each other ; beneath its anterior extremity is the external 
lacerated wall of a canal wliich ascends from the foramen lacerum posterius, curving forwards round the 
tympanic tube ; it passes into a groove, arching backwards to the lower angle of the upper pneumatic orifice, 
and terminating in a narrow canal which traverses the diploe at the floor of that orifice, emerges at the 
canalicular convexity on the occipital aspect. The paroccipital process presents a shallow groove at its 
base anteriorly, wliich widens as it ascends ; its floor is cellular above, behind the inferior tympanic facet ; 

, below it curves inwards, and passes into a rounded orifice which perforates the outer wall of the canal 
just mentioned ; the groove lodges the sinus of the membrana tmpani, which transmits its blood to the 
internal jugular vein ; its outer edge is undefined, the inner is sharp and gives attacluneut to the membrana 

Internal to it is a shorter but deeper concavity, also exposing pneumatic cells beneath the inferior 
tympanic facet. In the mouth of the tmpanic tube is seen posteriorly the vertically oval orifice of a 
short canal, leading iuwards and slightly forwards to the foramina ovale and rotimdmn of the vestibule, 
which are separated by an oblique grooved bar ; in front of it, is a large pneumatic orifice transmitting air 
to the diploe surrounding the labyrinth, and the oval orifice of the depressed basilar efferent pneumatic 
canal, passing forwards and inwards separated by a tliin septum from the wide Eustachian tube: the 
efferent apertures from wliich open into the cells of the basilar protuberance, over wliich it passes con- 
verging to its feUow ; the common orifice has already been described. The anterior wall of the tympanic 
tube is perforated by an aperture leading into the pneumatic canal. From the supra-orbital to the mastoid 
notch is two inches foui- lines and a half; between the opposite surfaces of the prefrontal, and of the 
paroccipital process inferiorly, is an inteiTal of two inches ; the anterior margin of the orbit is one inch six 

lines and a half deep, and from the temporal notch to the lower angle of the paroccipital, one inch five lines 
and a half. 

The broad .superior facet of the cranium, on the removal of the beak so as to expose the upper siwface 
of the turbinated alae of the ethmoid, presents a subhexagonal figure ; the anterior border, corresponding 
to a Hne drawn between the anterior angles of the prefrontals, being only one half of the width of the 
posterior ; and the antero-lateral margins about twice as long as the postero-lateral : beliind the hne of the 



resilient liinge, formed by the beak and the cranium — the cranio-facial line, at wluch the forehead rises 
abruptly above the level of the upper mandible, it has the same form, but the anterior and posterior, as well 
as the lateral edges respectively, approach to equality in length. 

Its greatest breadth, corresponding to a line dra\vn between the lateral rounded angles, about six lines 
in front of the post-orbital processes, is three inches nine lines ; anteriorly, it contracts gradually to the 
supra-orbital notches, where it is three inches wide ; it continues forwards for haK an inch of the same 
diameter, and then rapidly diminishes in width to the anterior edge, which is one inch six hnes. 

A little beliind its greatest transverse diameter, it presents the deep temporal emarginations, and 
gradually contracts to the notches separating the mastoid from the paroccipital processes, where it measures, 
transversely, two inches nine lines. The median longitudinal diameter, from the cranio-facial line to the 
occipital facet, is two inches nine hnes ; from the anterior angle of the prefrontal to the most remote part 
of the occipital aspect, is three inches two bnes. 

This facet is formed, behind and centrally, by the confluent, short but broad, parietals ; posteriorly 
and laterally by the mastoid, presenting the muscular impressions, and extending forwards, so as to enter 
into the composition of the post-orbital process (which in the Emeu and Bustard is formed by a separate 
element) ; anteriorly it is constituted by the abbreviated and coalesced frontals, which are raised by the 
sudden and great expansion of the diploe into a broadly rounded, interorbital protuberance. The wide 
semi-lunar notch, formed by their combined anterior edges, receives the bodies or frontal plates of the 
nasals, which are abruptly bent upwards at an angle of 45° with the plane of the upper mandible, and 
ascend high on the frontal slope to coalesce with the frontals, the sutures being obliterated : the nasals 
appear to be relatively much abbreviated, and to be almost, if not whoUy, separated mesially by the broad 
triangular extremity of the nasal process of the premaxiUary, which is wedged between them, being bent 
upwards in the same peculiar manner. The vacuity left between the nasal bone and the ant-orbital process 
of the frontal, on each side, is filled by the triangular body of the prefrontal ; wliich is anchylosed externally 
to the ant-orbital process, the latter advancing along its outer edge to the lacrymal groove, as already 
indicated ; internally it is separated from the ecto-nasal limb by a fissure, but its apex is anchylosed to the 
frontal plate of the nasal. On removing the beak, the broad, flat arch is seen, formed by the prolongation 
of the interorbital septum and the turbinated lamina passing out fiom it, on each side, and curving down- 
wards to meet the prefrontal. 

In the immature condition, the peculiar frontal protuberance of the Bodo would not be developed, 
and the cranium would present a gentle slope, descending from the vertex (which is somewhat in front of 
the coronal fontaneUe, and corresponds internally to the most elevated part of the cerebrum), to the upper 
surface of the mandible. 

The profile would hence resemble that in the skull of the Calmnas, &c., but would be relatively much 
shorter, from the abbreviation of the frontal : the length of that bone, and more particularly of its orbital 
segment, depends on the extent traversed by the peduncle of the olfactory nerve, ere it terminates in the 
proper nerve-filaments distributed to the sense-capsule {dfimo'ul). It protects, as the upper segment of the 
fronto-ueural ai'ch, not as the lateral moiety of a divided spine, the anterior extremity of the cranio-vertebral 
tube, and is supported below by the interorbital septum, or centrum, of the frontal vertebra ; which is 
excavated and reduced to a thin vertical plate, by the fossae for the reception of the eyeballs and their 
appendages. In the Bodo, from the small relative size of the ej'es, the interorbital septum assumes more 
of the ordinaiy characters of a centrum, and the olfactory capsules retrograde, as it were, and recover their 
primary or normal relation to the cerebral cavity. The attentive study of this singular cranium has enabled 
me to recognise the existence only of three cranial vertebra, essentially related to the tlu'ee liigher senses. 

Ch. I.] OF THE DODO. 85 

The orbito-splienoids, or lower segments of the fronto-neural arch, are rarely developed in bii'ds, as distinct 
elements : the bones indicated as such, by Mr. Owen, having no real or separate existence ; that learned 
author regards them as the neurapophyses of the fronto-neural arch, and the frontal bones as the expanded 
and divided frontal spine. As growth advanced, the diploe of the coalesced frontals would begin to expand, 
and the obliteration of the sutures connecting them to the facial bones, would enable the increased deve- 
lopment of pneumaticity to invade the frontal portions of the nasals and the median process of the pre- 
maxillary, so as to render them tumid, and tilt their anterior walls forward, producing the marked distinction 
between the cranial and mandibular segments of these elements. 

The frontal protuberance culminates at a height of eleven Hues above the cranio-facial line, and seven 
lines above the highest part of the parietal tract : it slopes rapidly downwards to the supra-orbital edge ; its 
anterior border is undeiined, where the frontals coalesce with the expanded cranial portions of the nasals 
and premaxiUary ; its posterior boundary follows nearly the posterior margin of the frontal, passing on each 
side outwards and forwards from the mesial line to a point on the supra-orbital border, midway between the 
notch and the post-orbital process. A broad shallow fuiTow traverses the median Kne, rendering it sub- 
bilobed ; at the posterior extremity of the groove, where the coronal fontanelle existed, is a small foramen 
leading into a canal capable of admitting a fine bristle ; it perforates directly the cranial parietes and opens 
internally towards the apex of the cerebellar fossa, transmitting a vein from the scalp to the posterior 
cerebellar sinus : the thickness of the cranium, here, amounts to eight Knes and a half. Behind the foramen 
is a transversely oblong band, three lines and two-thirds wide, and one line long ; defLaed posteriorly by an 
ungueal fissure-Hke groove, the angles of which extend outwards, curving backwards : its extremities are also 
defined by grooves. From the foramen a venous groove passes outwards, along the posterior border of the 
frontal protuberance, and externally curves shghtly backwards to the aperture or notch on the supra-orbital 
plate, leading to the furrow on the roof of the orbit ; about half an inch external to tliis edge, it is joined 
by a semi-circulai' groove which sweeps inwards, convex anteriorly, over the summit of the protuberance, 
and, bending backwai'ds, reaches the median furrow ; finally diverging from it, to meet the posterior groove 
at the outer and anterior angle of the band just mentioned. "Where the semi-lunar grooves diverge from 
each other beliind, a triangular, slightly elevated tract is left on the floor of the metban furrow, with its 
base separated from the osseous band by a slight groove. From the convexity of the semi-lunar groove, 
two others pass forwards, on the left side, to a furrow, which appears to indicate the anterior edge of the 
combined frontals ; in the centre it reaches half way up the frontal slope, its angle extends to the sutvire 
between the antorbital process and prefrontal on each side. 

The precise limit of the subtriangular frontal plate of the nasal, is undefined ; the external limb rises 
to a higher level than the internal, and is less abruptly bent on the body: on the left side, a groove 
curving outwards as it retrogrades, and continuous in front with the fissure between the prefrontal and 
ecto-nasal limb, indicates the outer margin of the body ; the upper would form a segment of the frontal 
furrow ; the internal is denoted by an interrupted fissure-like groove, wliich may be traced upwards fi'om 
the linear impression separating the premaxiUary median process, and the inner limb of the nasal, along the 
upper beam of the mandible ; it passes inwards as it ascends, but appears not to have come in contact with 
its fellow behind, being separated in its whole extent by the termination of the premaxiUary nasal process ; 
wliich ascends to touch the frontals mesially, its apex having been probably inserted into the fi-ontal suture. 
The lateral moieties of this extremity are also separated by a median fissure-Kke groove, wliich disappears 
as it ascends ; the left one is more tumid than the right, and its anterior bullose extremity overhangs the 
cranio-facial line ; on the right side, the pneumatic diploe does not cease so abruptly, and has a tendency to 
invade the median mandibular stem. This portion of the premaxiUary measures sis hues across its base. 


and appears to ascend ten lines and a half to its apex. The cranio-facial line is notched on each side, by 
the termination of the nasal fissure ; the distinction between the mandibular and cranial segments of the 
nasal is least marked on the right side : the part of the latter, immediately behind the broad outer Kmb, 
is more ioilated than the upper and inner angle ; the expanded portion being defined by a semi-lunar 
groove. The triangular frontal aspect of the prefi-ontal, from the compression of the anterior part of the 
cranium, is directed very obliquely outwards ; the anterior edge being much in advance of the posterior, 
which is anchylosed to the antorbital process ; a deep fissure separates the anterior or inner margin from 
the ecto-nasal limb ; the base forms the upper rounded border of the lacrymal groove, and terminates 
anteriorly in an obtuse projecting angle. This surface is perforated by numerous vascular apertures. 

The sub-crescentic supra-orbital tract is rough, and perforated by periosteal vascular foramina ; a 
series of larger size extend fi'om the notch on the antorbital process to the supra-orbital foramen or notch, 
and indicate its inner boundary ; hence the supra-orbital plate appears formed, as it were, by a separate 
ossification of the periosteum extending outwards to protect the eyeball. The space in front of the semi- 
circular venous grooves is also minutely punctate, the apertures becoming larger anteriorly. The tabula 
externa of the pneumatic diploe, on the frontal slope, is tliinned and inflated opposite the individual cells ; 
and some of these have opened out ; these appearances indicate that the skull in question belonged to a 
domesticated individual. 

The parieto-mastoid tract is gently arched transversely, but ascends rapidly in the antero-posterior 
diameter. It is narrow mesially, but extends laterally so as to occupy two-tliirds of the convex external 
edge of the cranium, behind the supra-orbital notch. The rhomboidal digastric impression occupies the 
posterior angle of this tract, its transverse diameter is less than one-fourth of the breadth of the cranium ; 
its posterior external angle corresponds to a slight groove on the mastoid process leading to the mastoid 
notch ; its broadly rounded inner and posterior angle is separated from the supra-occipital ridge by the 
liinder horn of the parietal surface ; a smooth narrow tract intervenes between its anterior margin and the 
temporal notch, and is continued into the smooth external surface of tlie mastoid process ; the superior 
and anterior angle touches the pyriform muscular area which surrounds the crotophyte impression in 
front; the posterior border, as already mentioned, is separated from the occipital muscular surface by 
the smooth convex edge extending from the canaUcular elevation to the mastoid notch. The crescentic 
crotophyte impression, forms a shelving entrance internally and anteriorly to the temporal notch ; on the 
left side, a sharp ridge separates from the anterior limb of tliis surface, a triangular segment impressing the 
post-orbital process, with its base external. Surrounding the crotophyte impression in front and within, 
is a subpyrifoim excavation ; its apex is truncated on a level with the posterior margin of the temporal notch, 
whilst its rounded extremity is separated by a narrow scabrous tract, four lines in breadth, from the orbital 
margin, and is so abruptly sunk beneath the level of the frontal protuberance, as to lodge the point of the 
finger. This impression doubtless gave origin to a cutaneous nfnscle, dermo-mastoideim, which is inserted 
into the integument of the posterior surface of the neck ; it would erect the feathers on the head of the 
Dodo, and push forward the hood-like cutaneous ridge. 

The anterior horn of the paiietal tract sweeps round the dermo-mastoid impression to be continued 
into the rough supra-orbital space, bounding it externally. The parietal surface is variously marked by 
small vascular impressions, but is destitute of the foramina so abundant on the frontal slope. 

The anterior and lesser aspect of the cranium presents the deep olfactory fossie, separated mesially by 
the thin anterior prolongation of the interorbital septum, which rests below on the sphenoidal rostrum. The 
single small olfactory foramen, on each side, opens directly, with an inclination outwards, into the base of 

Ch. I.] OP THE DODO. 87 

'its respective fossa ; at their exit from the apex of the cerebral cavity, they diverge slightly from each 
other, and are separated by an interval of about four Hues, corresponding to the breadth of the interorbital 

Before describing more minutely the formation of the oKactory fossae in the Dodo, it will be necessary 
to consider them first in other Pigeons, by which we shall alone gain a correct conception of several peculi- 
arities in the cranium of tliis extinct form. In all Pigeons, as in many other birds, the anterior extremity 
of the vertical osseous plate, forming the interorbital septum, advances beyond the junction of the nasal 
with the frontal bones ; and is completely covered by the former, wliich meet in the median line posteriorly, 
but are separated anteriorly by the extremity of the nasal process of the premaxillary ; hence no part of it 
appears mesially, beliind the premaxillary and between the nasals, as in the Umeu and other Stmthlonidm. Prom 
each side of the expanded upper border of tliis advanced portion of the septum, a tliin lamina passes hori- 
zontally outwards ; contracting rapidly from before in the antero-posterior diameter, it bends downwards 
and inwards, arcliing over the foramen for the transmission of the olfactory and ophthalmic nerves and ac- 
companying vessels, to meet and be continued for a gi'eater or less extent along the outer border of a 
vertically transverse, subtriangular plate, projecting outwards from the interorbital septum : this last com- 
mences beneath the common aperture, and increases in breadth as it descends ; by its anchylosis with the 
inferior extremity of the prefi'ontal, it forms the anterior wall of the orbit, separating it from the open 

olfactory cavity in front. 


For reasons which cannot be discussed here, I regard the interorbital septum as the 
compressed body of the third and last, or most anterior of the cranial vertebrae ; and the 
processes just mentioned, as ossified portions of the ethmoid or olfactory capsule ; the superior 
I have hitherto denominated the turbinated, and the lower, the inferior ala of the ethmoid, 
and I shall continue to use these terms in the remainder of this description. By the 
sphenoidal rostrum, or rostrum simply, I understand the anterior prolongation of the sphenoid 
which supports the interorbital septum ; it has been incorrectly considered as homologous with 
the anterior sphenoid in mammals, and hence has received the special appellation of presphe- 
noid in Professor Owen's late paper on the Vertebrate skeleton ; ' whereas the interorbital 
septum in bii'ds is the homologue of the mammalian presphenoid. The bone which has 
heretofore been denominated the lachrymal in birds, is undoubtedly the homologue of the 
prefrontal in the cranium of fishes and reptiles ; the true lachrymal bone, which is external to 
the lachrymal duct, exists in certain Saui'ians, and in the Crocodilida ; it does not occur in 
the higher Vertebrata, Aves and Mammalia, while the prefrontal only disappears in certain 
exceptional instances among mammals ; in birds and mammals it has erroneously been re- 
garded as the true lachrymal, and is so named even by the learned Hunterian Professor; 
this false homology masks one of the most beautiful instances of the unity of organization. 

Having thus explained the meaning of the terms employed, we may retm'n to our 
subject : — 

The fissure remaining between the turbinated ala and the prefrontal, wliich in many birds transmit?- 
the upper diverticulum of the suborbital sinus, in several Pigeons, is diminished by the extension upwards of 

' Reports of British Association, 1846. 
2 A 


the ajiex of the inferior ala, to join the interorbital septum, so as to form a bridge over the oKactory groove, 
behind that produced by the turbinated ala ; the interval left between them, transmits a branch of the 
ophthabnic nerve with the accompanying vessels, which groove the outer surface of the turbinated ala, and 
escaping from between the nasal limbs are distributed to the nostrils. The outward expansion or development 
of the produced apex obhterates the fissure ; the anterior wall of the orbit presenting only the olfactory 


There is thus left a space between the turbinated ala and the prefrontal, which is closed beliind by the 
outward extension of the former ; it lodges a part of the subocular pneumatic sinus, from which the pre- 
frontal receives aii- directly, by a large apertm-e on its inner surface. The compressed cavity internal to the 
turbinated ala is wider above and below, narrowest in the centre, where the olfactory orifice opens into it ; 
the apposition of the pituitary membrane with that of the pneumatic sinus beneath the laclirymal duct 
bounds it externally, and below it is continued over the groove on the inferior ala to open into the posterior 
nares by the concavity of the nasal process of the palatine bone. 

In Goura, the prefronto-ethmoidal fissure is not obliterated. In Treron, Geophaps, and Calmias, it is 
completely closed ; in Carpophaga, Ptilinopus, and Bidmiculus, only partially so. 

In Trerm, jDidmicidas, and Calxnas, &c., the turbinated ala is so cui'ved outwards or evasated, as to 
come into contact with the apex of an inwardly inclined, subtriangular projection from the anterior margin 
of the prefrontal, supporting the termination of the lachrymal duct ; and thus the pneumatic space is di\dded 
into two compartments ; in Treron, from the great expansion of the diploe, it is much reduced in size. 

In the Dodo, the prolongation of the interorbital septum, and the turbinated alse, project about five 
lines beyond the junction of the cranium and mandibular apparatus ; completely concealed from above by 
the latter, but not in contact with it, as in other Pigeons. The resilient hinge having retrograded to the 
cranio-facial line, space is left to permit of the downward flexion of the mandible ; the remainder of tliis 
mechanism we shall see hereafter. The curved plate is mucli widened out to lodge the olfactory apparatus, 
and the convexity comes in contact with the prefrontal, in its whole length, at that part of the inner surface 
of the latter, which corresponds to the lachrymal groove externally ; so that the subocular space is completely 
obliterated in the centre. The inferior ala is much compressed transversely and extended forward, so as to 
leave between it and the rostrum, a deep narrow groove ; and the subocular space is reduced to a small 
irregular depression between its thin anterior edge and the prefrontal, mi\\ wliich it coalesces inferiorly. 
The prefronto-ethmoidal fissure is obliterated by the expansion of the posterior border of the turbinated 
ala, arching over the foramen that transmits the ophthalmic branch of the fifth nerve, which grooves 
the roof of the olfactory fossa. Tliis aperture is diminished by an extension forwards of an osseous plate, 
from the interorbital septum outside of the foramen olfactorium ; it forms the outer part of the floor of the 
olfactory fossa, and is, as it were, an ossification of the external wall of the periosteal tube, which conducts 
the olfactory peduncle to its exit at the autorbital foramen in most other birds ; here, the tube in relation to 
the extremely short olfactory peduncle is much abbreviated, and its base widened out, serving to obhterate 
the space intervening between the antorbital and oKactory foramina. The oKactory fossa has a subhemi- 
spherical base, perforated by the single aperture for the transmission of the oKactory nerve ; its floor presents 
the deep narrow groove just mentioned ; the outer waU is perforated by the antorbital foramen about tlu-ee 
lines anterior to the oKactory outlet. Each fossa is one inch two lines deep, and five lines wide at its 
anterior orifice ; the height exclusive of the groove is six Hues. The extremity of the high compressed 
rostrmn is removed, exposing to view the very loose diploe enclosed by thin and elastic parietc-s ; it pro- 
bably terminated in a subacute apex. The anterior thickened margin of the inter-oKactory septum is 
concave anteriorly, and its lower portion ascends obhquely backwards, to a deep notch immediately below its 

Ch. I.] OP THE DODO. 89 

up23er end ; it is sharp in the centre. Tlie septum is translucent centrally, and its thinness gives increased 
space for the lodgement of the olfactory apparatus. 

The relatively smaU cerebral cavity has its axis placed more horizontally, than in other Pigeons ; so 
that the brain is, as it were, rotated on its transverse axis, and this rotation gives rise, or is related, to the 
verticahty of the occipital facet. 

The apex of the cerebral case is so depressed as to be nearly equidistant between the upper and 
under surfaces of the cranium, and to correspond externally to a point a little behind the centre of the 
groove on the interorbital septum. The frontals attain a median thickness of one inch and two or tliree 
Hnes, above the truncated apex, formed by a broad septum separating the olfactory foramina ; wliich open 
directly into the bases of their respective fossae. This septum is not homologous with the crista galli of 
the etlunoid, but is a prolongation upwards of the thick interorbital septiun, or body of the olfactory vertebra, 
to coalesce with the frontals mesiaUy, and tlms to divide the anterior orifice of the cerebral tube into two 
foramina for the transmission of the olfactory peduncles, and so far to close it : the non-existence of any 
vertebral segment anterior to the frontal, permits the olfactory capsules to converge towards the median 
line and to be separated only by a thin septum, the prolongation of the anterior centrum ; they are thus 
most exposed to the iuspii-atory currents of air loaded with odorous particles; the optic and auditory 
capsules, on the contrary, are situated between two adjacent vertebrae and project laterally. The thick- 
ness of the interorbital septum, beneath tlie olfactory foramina, is one inch two hues, and diminishes one 
haK at the optic outlets. The length of the cerebral cavity, measured from the upper or lower margin 
of the foramen magnum to the olfactory septum, is one inch nine Hnes and a lialf ; its breadth between the 
foramina for the transmission of the ophthalmic branch of the iifth is one inch ; the extreme width of the 
cerebral fossae is perhaps one inch nine hnes, and its greatest height from the floor of the optic groove, 
probably about ten hnes. 

The basilar fossa for the lodgement of tlie medulla oblongata is slightly concave transversely, and rises 
towards the posterior cHnoid plate, which projects with a subcouvex border over the pit containing the 
orifices of the carotic canals, at the posterior part of the shallow and broad seUa turcica; this plate is 
traversed at its base by the canal for the abducens nerve. The extreme length of the basilar fossa, from 
its posterior angle on the upper surface of the occipital condyle to the clinoid process, is one inch and a 
tliird of a hne ; its transverse diameter is equal to that of the lower segment of the foramen magnimi : it 
presents, posteriorly and lateraUv, the condyloid foramen ; and in front of it, the large infundibular pneumo- 
gastric orifice overhung by the vestibular prominence, which projects into the area of the foramen magnum 
at the centre of its lateral margin ; a narrow convex ridge separates tliis aperture from the meatus auditorius 
internus, which has a subacute anterior edge rmining backwards on the vestibular convexity, between it and 
the petrosal fossa. The cerebellar fossa is relatively narrow, its length from the upper margin of the 
foramen magnum to its apex, dividing the cerebral fossa posteriorly, is one inch ; its surface is considerably 
depressed beneath the level of the cerebral fossae ; it neither presents the lougituchnal venous groove, nor 
transverse furrows corresponding to the laminae of the cerebeUum ; along its margin posteriorly is seen the 
lateral venous groove terminating in the lateral occipital foramen ; its lower angle, immediately above the 
foramen magnum, is perforated by the mesial occipital apertui-e. The fossa for the optic lobe is relatively 
very shallow internally, and its edges uudefijied ; at its apex, beneath the lateral venous groove, there is a 
tumid pneumatic projection about the size of a large pea, overhanging the petrosal excavation. The tliin 
floor of the optic fossa is pierced by the foramen giving passage to the ophthalmic branch of the fifth pair- ; 
internal to which it is grooved by the fourth nerve, which perforates the thin plate forming the posterior 


border of the optic foramen ; at its deepest part it presents tlie foramen ovale. The oculo-motor aperture 
opens within the posterior border of the optic foramen, beneath the orifice for the trochlearis nerve. The 
form of the cerebral fossae indicates that the cerebral lobes were broad and rounded in front, and elevated 
above the level of the cerebellum ; the mesial ridge dividing them is low and obtuse, and subsides anteriorly 
towards the inter-olfactory septum, which is slightly carinate vertically ; the outer edge of the olfactory 
foramen is subacute. The broad platform, formed by the interorbital septum between the oHactory and 
optic outlets, is convex in both diameters ; its posterior, tliick and rounded border projects over the groove 
lodging the optic chiasma. The surface of the cerebral fossa is smooth, and presents no trace of division 
into compartments. 

The strong, much compressed and elongated upper mandible, corresponding to the two anterior tliirds 
of the cranium, may be regarded as forming a three-sided pyramid; whose base is beveUed otl' in a 
direction downwards and forwards ; the feebly uncinated apex projects beneath the level of the narrow 
palatine facet; and a plane replaces posteriorly the edge to wliicli the broad lateral surfaces iuchne above. 
The thin upper margin of the base forms the hinge for the movements of the mandibular apparatus ; fi-om 
its anterior and inferior angles pass backwards the palatine bones to meet on the sphenoidal rostrum, while 
the slender pterygoids form a counter arch, springing from the inner angle of the inferior articular surface 
of the tympanic on either side ; its crown abuts against that of the palatine. The strong sigmoid zygoma 
ascends from the external and inferior angle of the tympanic, to the centre of the outer edge of the base. 
The length of the upper mandible, measured from the cranio-facial Une, is five inches eight hues, from the 
same hue obhquely to the apex, five inches nine hues and a half; its greatest breadth is one inch seven 
lines ; and its height, opposite the inferior angle, is one inch five lines and a half. 

The liigh, compressed core occupies the apical tliird ; it is formed by the premaxillary, whose strong 
mesial process, with the ento-nasal plate on each side, constitutes the upper beam of the mandible, a faint 
linear impression indicating their respective boundaries ; the narrow lanceolate nasal fissure, perforating 
the basal two-tliirds, divides the upper from the compressed lateral stems. The sutures between their 
elements are whoUy obliterated ; judging fi'om analog}', the lateral process of the premaxUlary bifurcates 
at a short distance beliind the core, the uiferior shp extending along the palatine sui-face, while the upper 
sinks into the outer aspect of the maxilla, and is wedged posteriorly between it and the expanded foot of 
the ecto-nasal hmb, whose inferior boundary would probably be indicated by a hue about an inch in 
length, drawn from the midar process to the lower border of the nasiil fissui-e ; along the posterior half of 
this line it meets the maxilla, wliich then passes internally to near the core, and forms the upper and lower, 
thick and rounded borders of the lateral beam, except for a short space anteriorly. 

The lateral stem thus constituted has an elongated subtriangular form, with the truncated apex 
towards the core ; the upper subconcave margm is three inches nine hues long ; the base of two inches 
and tlu-ee Unes, ascends obhquely backwards, forming an angle of 125° with the palatine edge, which is of 
equal length. Viewed from above, the mandible presents a broad shallow excavation, impressing the outer 
surface of the lateral beam on each side, and extenduig from its prominent external basal edge, beliind 
which the mandible is flatly compressed, forwards to the core. 

This peculiai-ity in the skuU of the Dodo, is due to the close approximation of the lateral stems 
in their anterior half; the mandible being most constricted about an inch behind the core, where its 
breadth is only seven lines, and its height one inch and tlu-ee Hues. The least breadth of each stem at 
the same place is tluee lines and one-third, and from this point they become rather broader as they proceed 
forwards, their lateral sm-faces curving outwards to pass into those of the core; posteriorly they diverge 

Ch. I.] OF THE DODO. 91 

and receive the broad termination of the mesial beam between their elongated upper angles. Their 
tliickness also rapidly increases ; that of the base is eight Hnes at the origin of the zygomatic process, but 
di min ishes towards the angles, especially the superior. Viewed in front, the base of the core conceals the 
anterior portion of the floor of these fossae, wliile behind, the posterior part appears shelving outwards ; 
the upper angle is also seen to curve obhquely backwards and inwards, grooving the upper border of the 
stem. On tracing the groove downwards, it is seen to be continuous with a distinct broad impression, 
occupying the deepest part of the fossa, separated posteriorly from a narrow tract of the general excavation 
by a faint ridge, which curves downwards and forwards, becoming more chstinct below ; its concavity looks 
upwards and forwards, and its anterior angle corresponds to the most constricted part of the mandible. 
The anterior boundary is less distinct, it is formed by an obHque line descending forwards, in front of 
which the lateral stem increases in breadth. The chord of these fossse, corresponding to a line drawn from 
the root of the zygoma to the greatest convexity of the core, is two inches and a half, and their greatest 
depth four lines and a haK. 

The lateral stems in front are nearly parallel and separated only by a narrow cliink ; at their base they 
slightly diverge, and the upper angles also are, as it were, t\\isted outward. 

The base bounds in front the u-regularly triangular lachrymal fissure ; immediately below the centre of 
the external border is the origin of the zygoma, which passes backwards and downwards at an angle of 
125° with the base : the lower half of the inner border is prolonged mto a narrow, semi-lnnar, antral plate, 
five Unes in depth, its inner surface slopes obhquely outwards and is vertically convex ; the outer is 
concave, a groove occupying its upper portion, at the superior angle of which is a large pneumatic aperture 
conveying air from the subocular sinus, and below it, several smaller ones ; an elongated lacerated fissure 
opens into the caiicelli of the expanded base beneath the root of the zygoma, along which its upper angle 
extends outwards. The laclu-ymal groove notches the base above the root of the zygoma and upper angle 
of the antral plate ; it corresponds to that on the prefi-ontal behind. The pneumatic chploe terminates 
abruptly five lines and a half above this notch, fitting into the anterior extremity of the groove between 
the prefrontal and turbinated ala, wlule the projecting inner angle of the prefrontal is lodged in a slight 
depression on the outer sui'face of the protuberance. The prolonged upper angle formed by the ecto-nasal 
limb, is a thin elastic plate, five lines and a half long and about four Hnes broad, with a sharp external, 
and a thick rough internal, margin ; it ascends to a liigher level than the mesial beam, decussating it in 
the centre of its course ; it expands shghtly outwards above, and is separated by a narrow cliink fi-om the 
ento-nasal plate. 

The mesial beam is formed anteriorly by the nasal process of the premaxillary ; at its origin its basal 
area is subcircular ; the rentrant angle between it and the lateral process on each side corresponds to an 
oblique fissure, leading forwards and outwards to the orifice of the horizontal vascular canal perforating the 
core ; it tapers gradually backwards for the space of an inch, and then continues of nearly the same transverse 
diameter to the cranio-facial Hne, but diminishes rapidly in thickness ; behind, it is supported by the ento-nasal 
plates which pass beneath it and meet each other in the mesial Hne inferiorly; an elongated narrow triangular 
portion appears externally on either side of the nasal process, and causes the mesial beam to increase rapidly 
in breadth in its posterior half. The length of the mesial beam is three inches nine Hnes ; its least breadth 
towards its centre, where it is formed by the premaxillary nasal process is five lines and a half, its breadth at 
the fronto-facial Hne is one inch ; and its transverse diameter, before expanding into the core, nine Hnes. 
The upper surface is flat behind with thick rounded borders ; in front it decHnes gently outwards on each 
side from a faint mesial ridge, and the edge, descending as it advances, disappears from the expansion of the 
nasal process ; the profile Hne has the same level for an inch posteriorly, and descends very gradually to the 



constricted part of the mandible, and then rises more rapidly to the same level, passing into the convex 
border of the core. The suture between the premaxillary and ento-nasal plate corresponds to a faint 
groove which passes forwards, and towards the centre of the stem attains its edge, thus defining the 
elongated triangular external segment of the ento-nasal plate, one inch eight lines long, and two Hnes and 
a half broad at its base ; behind, it is continued upwards on the frontal slope, separating the inner margin of 
the nasal from the terminal extremity of the premaxillary nasal process ; in front, it advances on the under 
surface of this process, diverging from its edge ; it then bends more suddenly inwards for a short space, and 
about an inch from the distal extremity of the nasal process, retrogrades and speedily meets its fellow in the 
median hne. The thin lancet-shaped extremities of the ento-nasal plates are thus defined, their apices being 
separated by the interposition of the nasal process ; the ento-nasal plates continue to meet as far backwards 
as the free edge of the inter-olfactory septum ; but where the mesial beam covers that septum and the 
turbinated alse, they diverge to pass into the respective bodies of the nasals. This portion of the mesial 
beam is hence thinner and more flexible, and its upper surface, together with that of the adjacent ecto-nasal 
Hmbs, is excavated or thinned away in a semilunar tract, convex forwards, so as to give increased flexibility 
to the mandibular liinge ; the greatest antero-posterior diameter of tliis tract is about eight lines, and it is 
minutely striated longitudinally. 

The depressed posterior moiety of the nasal process is thus supported by the ento-nasal plates, which 
are concave laterally and meet below in a crest subsiding behind; so that the mesial beam is carinate 
inferiorly in its central moiety, and its section triangular; a groove furrows the keel posteriorly. The 
primitive division of the nasal process is also indicated by a very faint mesial groove, more perceptible 
posteriorly on the frontal slope, anteriorly it traverses the floor of the depression on the flattened posterior 
portion of the convex border of the core. 

The wedge-shaped core supporting the short gnathotheca, is two inches long and about one inch 
four hnes high in the centre ; its greatest breadth is one inch one Une. The lateral surfaces converge very 
gradually, are gently convex, and inferiorly towards the lower edge shghtly impressed : a series of seven 
foramina occur on the right side, haK an inch above the inferior border ; the anterior is the largest, and 
forms the termination of the vascular canal, whose entrance is seen at the rentrant angle, between the nasal 
and maxUlary processes ; short divergent offsets from it open outwards, giving rise to the other foramina 
of that range ; another set of four in number runs parallel to the upper border, the posterior is the largest, 
the anterior are narrow and slit-hke, they are also the emergent orifices of vascular canals ascending from 
the primary one. Smaller foramina occur over the intervening space, which is also minutely grooved by 
the impressions of venous radicles. The upper border is gently convex, flattened and grooved behind ; 
but sharper in front and prolonged into the feebly decurved apex, which is rounded off and not acuminated. 
The palatine surface is concave, and bounded laterally by sharp alveolar edges, which are slightly 
involute ; it is perforated by numerous large vascular apertures, and traversed by a mesial ridge ; the 
palatine fissure grooves it posteriorly, widening out immediately before its termination to transmit the 
palatine nerves and vessels. The gently festooned alveolar edge is prolonged forwards into that of the 
apex, beliind which it is concave inferiorly; it then descends towards the base of the core ; and, lastly, rises 
into the Une which separates the external surface of the lateral beam from the palatine tuberosity, which 
has its apex at the most constricted part of the mandible : this line ascends towards the root of the zygoma. 
The base of the mandible and the lateral stem anteriorly present indications, in the opened-out osseous 
texture, of the domesticated concUtion in which the individual hved. The posterior angles of the external 
nasal fissures are nearly obhterated by the increasing breadth of the mesial beam as it retrogrades, and are 
closed by cellulo-fibrous tissue ; the nostrils opening in front at the grooves formerly described. 

Ch. L] of the dodo. 93 

The strong sigmoidal zygoma is formed by tlie malar and zygomat'ic styles, winch coalesce at an early 
period ; the distinction between the malar and maxillary bones is obhterated sooner ; it descends obUquely 
backwards, as already mentioned, at an angle of 125°, with the posterior or basal edge of the maxilla, and 
attains the lower and outer angle of the tjinpanic, after a course of two inches seven Hnes and a half. Prom 
its origin, at the junction of the ecto-nasal limb with the maxilla, it is directed backwards and sHghtly out- 
wards to the prefrontal ; beliind, it is strongly arched externally, beneath the orbit ; in the downward flexion 
of the upper mandible, the liinder extremity of the anterior segment touches the prefi'ontal, which is flat- 
tened and granular at the point of contact ; in the relaxed condition, it is separated by a chink, one Hne in 
breadth. The anterior portion is triangularly prismatic ; the outer vertical surface is furrowed ; the lower 
presents the prolongation of the upper angle of the maxillary pneumatic foramen into a deep groove ; the 
upper is bevelled off inwards to the lower : all these surfaces are rough and striated. The long posterior 
segment is compressed vertically, and shghtly contracted at each extremity ; the upper smooth surface pro- 
duced, as it were, by the flattening of the upper edge of the anterior portion, is convex, and directed down- 
wards and outwards in its anterior moiety, but grooved longitudinally behind ; the inner edge is smooth 
and rounded posteriorly, and flattened vertically opposite the prefrontal ; the outer is tliicker behind than in 
front, where it overhangs the inferior groove, it rises into the upper edge of the prismatic portion : the 
inferior surface slopes upwards and inwards, and is faintly furrowed lengthwise at each end. The posterior 
extremity presents a convex articular facet, directed inwards, and adapted to the pit on the lower and outer 
angle of the tympanic ; a groove surrounds its neck for the attachment of the capsular hgament ; the outer 
edge anterior to it, is covered by articular cartilage, on which the external mancUbular ligament glides. The 
greatest breadth is two hnes, and the depth one and a half. 

The vertically spoon-shaped palatine bones, separated by a narrow cliink anteriorly, arch outwards 
fi'om each other beliind, and finally approximate on the rostrum ; they enclose between them the' inferior 
nasal fissure, divided in the recent state by the membraneous septum, into the choanm. Each palatine is 
formed of a scimitar-shaped sub-horizontal lamina {crest), with the cutting edge external, attached ante- 
riorly to the maxillary, five Hnes in front of its angle ; posteriorly towards the rapidly incurving point, the 
back is flattened into an oblong plate moulded to the rostrum, on which it ghdes ; a triangular curved 
lamella {nasal jjrocess) rises from its inner concave edge into the laclu'3Tnal vacuity, while a similar plate 
{palatine process) descends to bound the inferior nasal aperture. 

The crest is thin, flexible, and horizontal anteriorly, where it is adapted to the tuberosity of the 
maxiQa ; beliind, it diminishes from without slightly in breadth, is tliickened and twisted on its axis so as 
to shelve downwards ; it also curves outwards, and lastly sweeps inwards, contracting, to be attached to the 
anterior moiety of the lower edge of the sphenoidal plate ; the outer edge of the free portion is thus 
concave in front and convex behind ; the inner is uniformly concave. 

The nasal process forms an elongated triangular curved plate, with the apex in front ; concave towards 
the nasal ca\'ity, and inclining shghtly outwards below towards its lower border, which is attached to the 
inner margin of the crest : it is bent rapidly inwards, to be attached by its posterior edge, in an oblique 
Kne directed downwards and backwards, to the anterior edge of the sphenoidal plate : its upper border, in 
its anterior moiety, is separated by a narrow fissure from the antrum ; behind it is shghtly emarginate 
on either side of a convex projection ; this border gives attachment to the fibrous membrane of the sub- 
ocular sinus, which stretches fi-om the antrum to the inferior ala of the etlimoid ; its concavity opens 
upwards in front of the olfactory fossa, and is prolonged downwards by the palatine plate. 

The palatine process is a low, triangular, and shghtly cuiwed lamina ; its anterior margin is convex. 


subsiding' in front towards the maxillary, it is rounded off into the obtuse apex behind ; the posterior is 
shorter, subconcave, and terrdnates at the anterior part of the sphenoidal plate ; its inner surface is concave 
in the antero-posterior diameter, but subconvex vertically ; a groove, corresponding to the crest externally, 
indicates the junction of its concavity \\ath that of the nasal process. The narrow, elliptical, posterior 
nasal fissure is, anteriorly, prolonged into the slit between the lateral mandibular beams ; in the dried state 
of the soft parts, the anterior angle of the posterior nares was two inches two lines and a half anterior to 
tl\e point where the palatines meet on the rostram. 

An obhque hne, directed forwards and inwards fi'om the convexity of the crest to its inner margin 
anterior to the subsidence of the palatine process, defines the fossa between the crest and the palatine 
process, which gives attachment to the fleshy fibres of the internal pterygoid; the depressed tract on 
the anterior part of the crest, gives attachment to the tendon of that muscle ; its fleshy fibres also arise 
from the fossa between the nasal process and crest, wliich is concave vertically and convex horizontally ; 
it is prolonged posteriorly into a deep rough depression on the outer surface of the sphenoidal plate, at the 
bottom of wliich is the pneumatic aperture. The palatine bone is almost destitute of pneumaticity ; the 
length of its free portion is two inches and a half. 

Tor pterygoid \iom., one inch two Hues and a half long, is curved hke the human clavicle, convex 
externally in front, and concave behind, and formed by a thin narrow band, twisted on itself and expanded 
at both extremities. The outer edge is thick and rounded behind ; in front it becomes thinner, being 
flattened inwards, so as to encroach on the upper aspect, which thus exhibits an elongated triangular tract 
passing into the base of the imier extremity. The iimer edge presents, on the left side, an angular 
proiection in the centre, the rudiment of the sphenoidal articidar surface ; anterior to which it is flattened 
outwards, extending to the apex of the inner facet ; the inferior surface is thus grooved in its two anterior 
tliirds. On the upper aspect, a bidentate crest extends from the outer extremity obUquely inwards, and 
subsides towards the centre, bounding internally a lanceolate space. The inner extremity is triangular ; 
the surface ghding on the sphenoid is shghtly convex, and its anterior edge is united by ligament to the 
palatine bone ; the compressed, oval posterior extremity is impressed by a narrow deep concavity for arti- 
culation with the tympanic. The pterygoid is destitute of pneumaticity. 

The tympanic bone, viewed from behind, is X shaped ; the lower segment being most extended trans- 
versely. The internal hmb above is bent backwards, and supports an oblong articular tubercle, forming 
the posterior condyle, around its base are several foramina ; the anterior is larger and covered by a trian- 
gular synovial surface, the apex beliind its inner angle extends into a curved linear strip connecting them ; 
the ligamentous groove is most distinct anteriorly and externally in both. A deep circular concavity, with 
a reticulate floor pierced by numerous pneumatic apertures, separates them posteriorly. A slight ridge, 
leading fr'om the external condyle to an inflected notch at the centre of the outer concave edge, indicates 
the attaclmient of the membrana tympani. The inner margin is more defined, less curved, and exhibits a 
semi-obovate outhne. Viewed externally, the figure is cruciform ; the lower and outer angle projecting, 
and impressed by a deep pit for the extremity of the zygoma. The orbital process, corresponding to the 
upper and inner limb, is formed by a tliin, curved, triangular plate ; the apex is broadly truncated, inflated 
and shghtly deflected outwards above ; the outer surface is convex and pitted for the external pterygoid 
muscle, except for a narrow tract beneath the apex, extending backwards along its upper margin, wliich 
runs outwards to the anterior condyle; its inferior angle is bent inwards and expanded into a narrow 
pterygoid convexity, at the apex of which is a pneumatic foramen. The inferior moiety of the external 
aspect is smooth, polished, and convex across the projecting angle. 

Ch. I.] OF THE DODO. 95 

The inner surface presents a tripartite fossa, deepest inferiorly, rough tlu-oughout; and obliterated 
towards the extremity of its anterior angle by the expansion of the diploe of the orbital process, which is 
subtranslucent : it gives insertion to the levator muscle. A triangular flattened surface, its base extending 
between the condyles, separates the upper Hmb from a shght concavity, which impresses the external 
surface above, and indents the orbital process. 

The mandibular extremity is compressed in the antero-posterior diameter; widest externally, and 
constricted in the centre. In its internal half, it forms a narrow transversely extended and downwardly 
projecting crest ; the outer segment is flattened vertically into a quadrate plate, and twisted from before 
backwards on its axis. A broad groove directed obliquely forwards renders its inner moiety subconcave, 
and hollows out the inner tubercle externally. Articular cartUage covers the backwardly sloping inferior 
surface of the outer condyle, dips into the groove, and expands over the tliick rounded edge of the inner 
one, wliich presents a large reticulated pneumatic foramen, and over its anterior surface, at the external 
angle of which it is narrowest. The greatest diagonal is one inch four lines and a half, and the least one 
inch tlu'ee lines ; the width of the upper extremity is eight Hues and a half, and that of the lower one inch ; 
it is three lines broad where most constricted. The orbital process is seven lines long ; from its apex, 
wliich is three Hues and a half wide, to the zygomatic angle, is one inch and three lines. The width of the 
outer mandibular condyle is five lines, of the inner two lines and a half; the length of the former is four 
lines ; that of the latter, five lines and a half. 

The rami of the loiverjaw, six inches in length, measured along the lower border, are separated by an 
interval of two inches seven lines between their angles, but unite at a short, acute symphysis, which ascends 
at an angle of about 45° with the lower margin. Each ramus is thin and curved, the convexity mounting, 
external to the palatine wedge, into the angle between the inferior margin of the maxiUa and the zygoma. 
The greatest height is at the centre, and amounts to one inch ; it diminishes slightly towards each extremity. 
The upper edge is sigmoidal, convex behind, but concave in front ; the profile line of the sharp upper edge 
of the core ascending very gradually as it advances, and then curving rapidly downwards to the mesial line 
of the symphysis, which is broadly emarginate anteriorly, concave above and subangularly rounded below ; 
its convexity is adapted to the concavity of the edge of the upper core, wlule the decurved apex of the latter 
is fitted to its emargination. The lower concave edge is rendered sKghtly convex towards the centre of the 
posterior moiety, by the projection downwards of the dentary and angular elements. The dentary piece, 
exclusive of the core, is subequal in length to the posterior segment of the ramus ; wliich is formed by the 
coalescence of the surangular, angular, and articular elements ; the opercular remains distinct, perhaps, to 
a late period of hfe. 

The dentary bifurcates posteriorly ; the upper limb is slit vertically, to receive the surangular, whose 
free portion, unoverlapped by the long narrow inner dentary plate, advances halfway to the core ; the 
suture between it and the short deeper outer lamina, is seen along the upper edge. The lower hmb extends 
backwards, contracting, along the outer surface of the angular ; whose tliick lower border, thinning anteriorly, 
passes forwards, between it and the opercular, as far as the centre of the inferior edge of the ramus. The 
irregularly lanceolate opercular, partly covers the angular and dentary pieces, and rises to close the com- 
pressed space {dental canal) containing nerves and vessels ; its posterior extremity extends along the inner 
surface of the angular, beneath the intiated portion of the articular ; its superior border comes in contact 
with the inner and upper dentary lamina ; anteriorly it terminates one inch behind the lower angle of 
the symphysis, its inferior edge diverging from that of the dentary ; its length is about three inches, and 
its greatest depth six lines. The opercular begins to coalesce with the dentary, along the anterior part of 

2 c 


its lower edge. A large vascular canal perforates the dentary very obliquely, running forward from the 
dental space ; it opens externally nearer the upper than the lower border, about nine lines behind the 
symphysis, and passes into a deep groove, which, advancing towards the core, is concealed anteriorly 
by the perforated and undermined, posterior crenate edge of the latter, as it ascends obliquely backwards : its 
outer wall is pierced by two foramina, opening behind into a furrow, which disappears halfway to the dentary 
notch. The dental canal terminates, internally, above the anterior extremity of the opercular ; the orifice is 
subdivided by a small process of the latter ; a rough depressed triangular tract is continued forwards from 
it, to the tliick posterior sub-vertical border of the symphysis, which is perforated horizontally by a vascular 
canal, emerging close to its lower edge, and midway between its angles ; the mentary groove, already 
mentioned, joins this canal at its centre ; externally, a series of five large apertures open upwards from it ; 
three or four downwards, and one on the rough concave symphysial surface. 

The fissure between the angular and articular pieces, is concealed by the dentary without, and the oper- 
cular within ; that between the tliin lamina of the surangular and the tumid rostrum of the articular 
element, is converted by the dentary fork into an elongated elliptical foramen, six lines and a half long, 
and one line and a half deep, its anterior angle corresponding to the posterior orifice of the dental space. 

The posterior segment of the ramus increases in breadth as it retrogrades, and chiefly inwards in its hinder 
moiety, so as to present a large pyramidal internal angle ; wliile the external is produced backwards into a 
compressed semi-lunar plate, with a thick and rough projecting edge, passing below into the smooth crest 
running upwards and inwards, between the basal facet, and the anterior aspect of the inner angle, which 
slopes obliquely forwards and outwards and passes into the inner surface of the ramus. 

The basal or digastric facet is triangular, with the rough obtuse apex internal ; the subconcave pitted 
surface passes externally into the inner convex aspect of the angular plate. 

The complex articular surface is transversely oblong; without, it presents a longitudinal, slightly 
concave, reniform tract, with an external convex border ; which plays on the outer flattened segment of the 
tympanic mandibular surface : witliin, it is deeply excavated for the reception of the ridge-like inner condyle; 
the concavity is directed inwards and forwards, becoming wider and shallower, its anterior depressed edge 
descending, while the posterior rises internally into a rough projection, rendering it concave transversely ; 
this edge is narrow, rounded without, but internally, it presents the large oval pneumatic apertui-e. Synovial 
cartilage lines the inner half of its floor and its anterior surface, detacliiug a tract to Une the reniform concavity. 
The low short coronoid process is separated by an interval of six lines and a half from the 
articular surface, and corresponds to the junction of the four anterior fifths with the posterior ; the upper 
edge of the surangular, anterior to it, is smooth and rounded. 

An elongated tubercle extends downwards and forwards from the centre of the outer projecting border of the 
external segment of the articular surface, and its anterior angle is prolonged into a ridge, passing forwards to 
the extremity of the lower dentary limb. The outer surface of the posterior segment is thus divided 
diagonally, into two subequal surfaces; the posterior of which is triangular, most concave, and deeply 
pitted ; it gives attachment to the muscles of the tongue, while the anterior furnishes insertion to the 
M. temporalis. 

The pitted surface on the inner aspect of the jaw, for the attachment of the M. pterygoideus 
internus is defined anteriorly by an oblique irregular ridge, commencing at the upper edge a Uttle anterior to 
the articular surface, and descending obliquely forwards to a groove, directed obliquely inwards and forwards, 
across the lower edge of the angular, from the extremity of the dentary to that of the opercular ; it extends 
backwards on the anterior aspect of the inner angle. 

The deeply concave pitted tract for the insertion of the external pterygoid, is anterior and superior 

Ch.L] of the dodo. 97 

to tlie former ; it extends forwards, contracting to a groove, which leads to the posterior angle of the ramal 
vacuity ; behind, it extends upwards to the coronoid edge. 

Having thus given a detailed account of the skull of the Dodo, it now remains to. 
contrast it generally with that of other Pigeons; for this purpose, and to supersede the 
necessity of lengthened descriptions, it has been thought desirable to give in Plate X., figures 
of some of the more remarkable and varied forms of the skull in that family, with a reduction 
of the head of the Dodo for comparison. 

I am indebted to that eminent ornithologist. Sir W. Jardine, for permission to examine 
the bones remaining in the only specimen of the Dkhncuhis in Em-ope ; and thus I am 
enabled to confo-m the opinion expressed by Mr. Gould, regarding the columbine affinities of 
that singular form, by the most certain of all tests, to wit, an examination of its osteological 

The most important and apparent difference between the skull in the Dodo and that in the lesser 
forms, depends on the small relative size of the brain and visual organs in the former, and the consequent 
abbreviation of the cranium and elongation of the basal part of the mandible. Tliis difference, though 
readily explicable, might cause many, even, acute anatomists to overlook the family resemblances to that 
of Pigeons in the skull of this extinct bird. The happy appreciation of these by Reinhardt, entitles that 
learned zoologist to a high place among Palfeontologists. In Treron, the extreme length of the cranial 
ca\aty is nine lines, and in Goura, one inch two lines ; while in the Dodo, it is only one inch nine lines, 
little more than double the length of that cavity in the diminutive Treron. The outlet (foramen mag- 
num) is also relatively less in the Dodo than in Treron. (Plate X., Fig. 2 a, 3 a.) 

In the smaller Pigeons, the supra-occipital plate is less vertical and flattened than in the Dodo, being 
more arched transversely, and inclined obliquely backwards. The occipital condyle is less prominent, and 
the basilar protuberances for the insertion of the M. recti capitis laterales majores less apparent. The 
mesial supra-occipital aperture exists in all ; and at an early period, it is very large and not separated by 
bone from the foramen magnum. Reference to the plates will indicate other minor differences, wliicli may 
vary in the species of the same genus. 

The superior facet in the smaller Pigeons is longer and narrower than in the Dodo, and the expansion 
of the frontal diploe less abrupt ; the mastoidal angles, bearing the muscular impressions, are also bent 
downwards on the lateral aspects ; while in the Dodo, they are thrown upwards by the great development 
of pneumaticity in the upper part of the lateral walls of the cranial cavity. The supra-orbitd border is 
broadly concave and the interorbital region narrowed in ordinary Pigeons, and especially in GeopJiaps. 

The profile is best seen in the respective figures ; the dotted Hne in the Dodo indicates the probable 
outHne before the development of the frontal protuberance. In Treron and Goura, there is a foramen as 
in the Dodo, perforating the cranium in the position of the coronal fontanelle ; numerous venous grooves 
converge towards it. The form and relative proportion of the different muscular areas vary in tlie different 
genera; they are most deeply impressed in Treron. 

In Goura there is a tendency to the development of the frontal protuberance opposite the apex of the 
cerebral cavity, and it is distinctly bilobed, the mesial line being traversed by a deep longitudinal furrow. 
The anterior portion of the coalesced frontals is elongated, as in other Pigeons, in relation to the great 
extent of the interorbital septum : the nasals touch each other in the median line, and their inner limbs 
are in contact with, and ultimately soldered to, the tui'binated alse. The hinge formed by the upper 


mandibular beam which here is chiefly constituted by the ento-nasal limbs, exists at the anterior edge of 
these plates, and in fi'ont of the posterior extremity of the nasal fissure. In the Dodo, ou the contrary, 
this hinge is in the same transverse line as the hinder angle of the fissure, and the mesial beam is, as it were, 
started off the flat arch, formed by the turbinated alee, which projects free under the mesial beam, separated 
from it by a space pennitting the downward flexion of the mandible ; the flexibility of the upper beam 
beinc increased by the thinning away of the part which conceals the free portion of the tnrbinated alse. 
The bifid posterior extremity of the mesial process of the premaxillary is much smaller than in the Dodo, it 
passes beneath the coalesced nasals, resting on the upper edge of the inter-olfactory septum, and reaching 
about half-way to the frontal border of the nasal ; in the Dodo, this extremity is much broader, and forms 
the principal part of the mesial beam at the hinge ; and it reaches further back, separating the nasals 
mesially ; its apex corresponding to the anterior extremity of the coronal suture. (See Plate X., Fig. 4 d). 

In Treron, the diploe of the anterior portion of the coalesced frontals, is more expanded than 
in Goura, and the frontal aspect is convex transversely, and in the antero-posterior diameter; while in 
Goura it is concave transversely, and depressed longitudinally ; the increased pneumaticity invades the 
nasals and overflows the extremity of the mesial beam, forming a tumid and abrupt cranio-facial line. The 
compact elastic extremity of the premaxillary process is wedged between tliis expansion and the 
inter-olfactory septum. The frontal aspect is depressed for a crescentic space, on each side, internal to the 
superciliary margin, and raised in the centre. [lb. Fig. 3 b.) 

In Bidunculus, the forehead is flatter longitudinally than in Treron, but the broad extremity of the 
mesial mandibular beam is, in like manner, overhung by the tumid convex segment of the expanded and 
coalesced nasals ; the central elevation of the frontal region is broader. {lb. Fig. 1 b). 

In all the lesser Pigeons, the arrangement of the mandibular hinge is essentially as in Goiira ; in 
Gonra, Geoj^Jia^s, and other slender-billed Pigeons, the ento-nasal Umbs are very narrow posteriorly, hence 
the hinder angles of the nasal fissures are ^videned out, and expose to view the turbinated ala;. In Ca- 
lanas, the mesial beam is broader at the hinge, owing cliiefly to the greater width of the nasal process of the 
premaxillary ; and the posterior angles of the nasal fissures are reduced to narrow chinks, as in the Dodo ; in 
Treron and Bidunculus, these angles are also obhterated ; but in all, the extremity of the nasal process of 
the premaxillary is concealed mesially by the juncti5n of the nasals, and does not ascend on the frontal 
region to separate the nasal bones from each other, as in the Dodo. 

The lateral aspect of the cranium in the lesser Pigeons differs from that in the Dodo, in the large 
relative size of the orbit, and in the great ratio wliich it bears to the temporal segment of the orbito-tem- 
poral fossa ; the latter being diminished by the bending down of the mastoid element. The interorbital 
septum intervenes between the cerebral and olfactory fossre : its junction with the coalesced frontals is 
traversed by the olfactory groove, wliich terminates in the antorbital foramen ; the septum is tliick and 
complete in Treron, in most other Pigeons it is tliinner, and perforate in front of the common anterior 
boundary of the optic outlets : the floor of the cerebral cavity also is frequently membranous behind the 
olfactory foramen. In Geophaps, the post-orbital process is elongated, and nearly meets the post-temporal 
process of the mastoid ; in Bidunculus, the strong post-temporal plate is extended forwards and joins a 
slender bar from the post-orbital process, which completes externally the circular temporal outlet. 

Interiorly, th(! rostrum of the sphenoid in the lesser Pigeons is necessarily more elongated than in the 
Dodo ; the pterygoid articular surfaces do not exist in the Bidunculus ; even in Goura, they are much 
reduced in size ; in Geophaps and Goura, the groove on the rostrum leading from the common outlet of the 
Eustachian tubes is well marked, and the lateral venous depressions are also perceptible in Goura ; the 
existence of these markings depending on the pneumatic expansion of the rostrum. The sphenoid and 
prefrontals are much inflated in Treron and Geophaps. 

Ch.L] op the dodo. 99 

The ratio in length of the upper mandible to the cranium, in various forms of Columlldm, is seen 
by reference to Plate X. ; in the ordinary Pigeon they are subequal, but in the stronger-billed fruit-eating 
genera, the beak is shorter than the cramuni, and in B'ulunculus, only half its length, while in the Dodo, it 
is twice as long. In the slender-billed species, the core is small, feebly hooked, and broadly rounded oti' 
apically ; it is relatively large, broad, and depressed in Geophaps; in Treroii it is stronger and wedge-shaped ; 
but attains its maximum of development in B'ulunculus, where it is much compressed and more sharply 
uncinate than in the Dodo, assuming a pseudo-raptorial character, which, however, is negatived by the 
feeble osseous apex, and by the soft and foliated texture of the gnathotheca. The mesial beam is also 
much shortened in Bidunculus, but its great breadth gives the necessary strength to the resihent hinge, 
required for the movements of this powerful beak ; it is covered by a vestige of the cere, which is much 
extended in certaiu Trerons, but arrives at its greatest extension in the Dodo. The peculiar characters 
of the maxilla and the obhquity of the zygoma in Pigeons, have already been described ; in Bidunculus, the 
horizontal portion of the maxiUa almost disappears, but the very strong basal segment ascends obhquely 
to join the broad ecto-nasal limb, and fi'om their junction the zygoma descends to gain the tympanic. The 
palatine tuberosity or plane in other Pigeons, is, in Bidunculus, replaced by the greatly developed funicular 
tendon of the internal pterygoid muscle, wliich arises from a strong tubercle at the base of the under surface 
of the core ; as it passes backwards external to the palatine bone, it is covered within by the membrane 
of the subocular sinus, and below by that of the palate, forming a sm-face on which the convexity of the 
lower jaw gUdes. The short lunate nasal fissui'e in Bidunculus, forms a striking contrast to its elongation 
ia other Pigeons. 

The shape of the palatine bone in the typical Pigeons, is well seen ui Treron, (Plate X, Fig. 3 c,) and 
the deviations from it, in that of the Dodo, are readily accounted for, by the shortening of the sphenoid and 
the contraction of the mandible ; the chief differences consisting, in the absence of the inflected portion of 
the palatine process, which in Treron diminishes the wide posterior nasal fissure ; in the shortness of the 
sphenoidal plate, iu relation to the abbreviated sphenoid ; and in the less curvature of the nasal process, 
depending perhaps on the compression of the manchble. 

In the Bidunculus, the palate bone is much elongated, being attached anteriorly to the union between 
the very short lateral stem and the oblique ascending base of the maxiUa, opposite the lower angle of the 
nasal fissure ; the middle segment corresponding to the nasal process is drawn out, forming the extended 
base of the laclirjinal vacuity ; and fi-om the great pneumaticity of the bone, the crest is expanded, narrowed, 
and subsides before reaching the sphenoidal plate. The nasal process is also but httle apparent, the fossa 
between it and the crest being obliterated by the expansion of the diploe : the palatine process is a small 
curved triangular lamina, prolonging downwards the nasal conca\aty ; it subsides behind at the anterior and 
inferior angle of the sphenoidal plate, and in front towards the termination of the crest ; the large pneumatic 
aperture perforates the lower part of the sphenoidal plate. The small area afforded by the palatine, for the 
origin of the powerful internal pterygoid , is amply compensated by the great development of the tendon of 
that muscle. 

The pterygoid bone is relatively longest in Bidunculus, but has nearly the same form as in the Dodo, 
being destitute of pneumaticity, and of the sphenoidal articular surface ; in Geophaps it has a similar shape, 
but articulates, as in most other Pigeons, with the sphenoid ; it is much inflated in Goura &c., the pneu- 
matic aperture being at the posterior extremity. The form of the inferior articular surface of the tympanic 
varies in the different genera of Pigeons ; tliis surface in the Dodo closely resembles that in Treron and 
Caleenas ; in Geophaps, the articular surface on the outer segment is much reduced in size, though that angle 
of the bone is much expanded, and chiefly backwards. In Bidunculus, we observe the greatest deviation 

2 D 

100 OSTEOLOGY [Pakt II. 

from the typical form ; the inner ridge-like condyle is extended in the antero-posterior diameter, and rests 
in a corresponding groove on the articular element of the lower jaw ; wliile the flattened upper border of the 
tliick and elevated outer wall of the latter, plays on a trocldear groove, extending externally along the 
posterior moiety of the base of the condyle. Tliis ginglymoid joint permits the protrusion and retraction of 
tlie lower jaw, as in Parrots, for the purpose of unhusking fruit or seeds ; the tympanic in the Didunculm, 
however, is readily distinguished from that in Parrots, by the double mastoid condyle. 

Tlie lower jaw varies in strength in the same ratio as the upper ; it is more or less curved in the 
different genera, and to the greatest extent in the slender-billed species, in wliich the beak is arched down- 
wards anteriorly. The dentary element is equal in length to the upper mandible ; the posterior segment is 
much inflated in Geopliaps ; and in all has a triangular digastric facet, which in Bidunmlus slopes very 
obUquely forwards and inwards, but in GeopJiaps has nearly the same shape as in the Dodo ; the external 
angular plate is not developed in the lesser Pigeons. The form of the articular surface necessarily varies 
with that of the coadapted aspect of the tympanic ; the coronoid process is strongly developed in Didimcu- 
lus and Trerou. The vacuity between the angular, surangular, and dentary elements, is present in Geophaps 
and Goura, as in the Dodo ; but is obHterated in Didunculm and Treron. The separation of the opercular 
element in the Dodo, indicates the incomplete development of the individual, and it occurs in the same 
condition in the specimen of Geophaps figured ; but in the huge inert Dodo, it may remain unanchylosed 
longer than in the more active and volatile forms. The symphysis is broad and depressed in Geophaps, but 
is more acute and ascending in Treron, as in the Dodo. 

In Bidunadm, the dentary element is very strong, and the core is armed, on each side, with two small 
crenations, supporting corresponding teeth-like processes of the gnathotheca, as in the Odontophorina among 
the Rasores : and the symphysis is truncate anteriorly as in Parrots, the horny sheath covering the apex 
being abraded, in the specimen examined, so as to expose the cutis. 

It is afiii-med that tliis bud Kves on bulbous roots ; it may also live on hard-coated fruits and seeds, as 
suggested by Mr. Gould ; the form of the articular surfaces of the tympanic and of the lower jaw, indicates 
the habitual employment of tlie lower mandible for decorticating roots, or unhusking fruits and seeds, after 
they have been crushed between the powerful jaws, the lower assisting especially by its dental armature ; 
the depth of the impressions for the insertion of the masticatory muscles attests the strength of these actions. 

The preceding details, accompanying the unrivalled lithographs of the skull of the Dodo 
(Plates VIII, IX, IX*), from the pencil of my esteemed friend Mr. Ford, (to whom I beg to 
return my sincere thanks,) will, I trust, be sufficient to remove any doubt regarding the 
Colimbine affinities of that extinct form ; the additional evidence fiu-nished by \h.efoot remains 
to be examined. 

The evidence regarding the affinities of a newly discovered or extinct bird, deducible 
from the form and minute configuration of the metatarsus, is second in value only to that 
furnished by the skuU. 

The metatarsus, like the head, preserves, notwithstanding such variations as occur in the 
diSierent genera and species of a common group, certain family characteristics, which are 
permanent; and which it is the province of the anatomist to eliminate, u'respective of 
absolute size. 

The importance of this enquiry to the ornithologist, has led to its investigation in a 
general manner by Kessler,^ whose researches will, I trust, be pubhshed by the Ray Society. 
' Bulletin de la Societe Imperiale des Naturalistes de Moscou. Aunee 1841. 

Ch. I.] OF THE DODO. 101 

The variation in shape of the small posterior or accessory metatarsus, which supports 
the hind toe, has hitherto been almost overlooked as a guide to classification, and farther 
observations are necessary to point out its real value ; in the Cohmhidce, the form of this bone 
is characteristic, and readily distinguishable from that of the corresponding element in the 
Basores ; although in some other respects, these orders closely approximate. 

The number and relative length of the toes, the form and proportion of the constituent 
phalanges, and especially of the ungual segment, are also important elements for indicating 
the habits of birds, both as to progression and prehension. Although the ColmnUdce are 
typically a perching group, stiU some of its members, as the Ground Pigeons ((?o?/n««), seek 
their food chiefly, if not exclusively, on the ground, and require a corresponding adaptation in 
the form of the foot ; which is not effected by a change in the shape of the metatarsi, or in 
the relative level of theii" trochlear extremities, in other words, by the assumption of the 
strictly ambulatory form of the foot, as in the Basores and Grallce ; but chiefly by the 
abbreviation of the phalanges of the outer toe, which thus becomes shorter than the inner. 

The same change takes place in the Dodo, which is a terrestrial representative of the 
Treronim group, just as the Geopliaps is a less terrestrial member of the ordinary Columbine 

The decayed and mutilated integuments were carefully removed from the remaining left 
foot of Tradescant's specimen by Dr. Kidd, the learned Professor of Anatomy and Medicine 
in the University of Oxford ; and we are thus enabled to test the validity of the deduction 
arrived at from the study of the head, and vice versa. 

The opinion advanced by Professor Owen, after an examination of this interesting osseous 
relic, has been already mentioned ; it is evidently based merely on the absolute size of the 
metatarsus, and the figures which he has fm-nished of its supposed atSne, will serve for its 
refutation, while those given in Plate XL, wiU enable the reader to judge of the accuracy of 
Mr. Strickland's observations. 

By authors, the principal metatarsus of birds is very generally termed the tarso-metatarsiis, 
but improperly, as we have no evidence of the development at any period of the tarsal 
segment of the limb, or of its fusion with the three elements which coalesce to constitute the 
metatarsal bone ; what has been regarded by some as the tarsal element, is simply the 
disjunct proximal epiphysis of the metatarsus. 

The metatarsus of the Dodo (Plate XI, Fig. 1-6), which is five inches two Unes and a half 
long, equals or exceeds in size that of the largest Raptorial bird, and is much greater than that 
of any of the known Basores ; in general form and proportions, it resembles most closely the 
corresponding bone in Pigeons, especially in the shorter-hmbed arboreal species, as the Treron. 
The leading resemblances have already been stated,' and an examination of the figures 
(Plate XI.) will enable the general reader to verify them. 

The great strength of this bone in Pigeons is remarkable, and the extended periphery 
is required to give an increase of surface, for the attachment of the powerful inter-osseous 

' Part I. Chap. 1. p. 44. 



[Part II. 


muscles which move the toes to and from the axis of the foot ; while the projection of the 
calcaneal process, which is supported by a highly developed buttress, gives much force to the 
action of the flexor muscles ; hence the firmness of the grasp, so necessary in large-bodied 
birds with relatively small tarsi, is attained. 

The posterior metatarsus in the Dodo (Plate XI, Fig. 7-10,) is nearly one-third of the 
length of the metatarsus, and measures one inch six lines ; but the relative size of this bone 
is not greater than in any other known bird, for in Lopholemus (ib. Fig. 43,) it is propor- 
tionally larger than in the Dodo. 

The correspondence in the form and relative length of the anterior toes, and of their con- 
stituent phalanges in the Dodo, with those in the foot of Geophaps, one of the most terrestrial 
Pigeons, is well seen in Plate XII. The ungual phalanx (ib. Fig. 5, 5ffl,) forms a remarkable 
contrast in its shortness and blunted apex, and in the small size of the tubercle for the 
attachment of the flexor tendon, to the corresponding joint in the typical Baptores. 

The supposed peculiarity in the Dodo, namely, " the equality of length of the metatarsus 
and proximal phalanx of the hind toe," is perhaps true as far as the ColumhidcB are concerned ; 
the difference however, if any, cannot be great in the Solitaire. The gi-eater length of this 
phalanx in Geojjhaps and other terrestrial Pigeons, and the consequent elongation of the 
hind toe, is probably related to the persistent habit of rising occasionally from the ground and 
perching ; while in the Dodo, which ' is not able to flic being so big,' the hinii toe is much 
abbreviated and subservient only for support. The bluntness of the claws, and the shortness 
of the digits (Plates VI and XII), render it, at least, highly improbable that the Dodo could 
seize and hold reptiles, were such existing in its native isle ; and the slowness of its pace 
would scarcely enable it to catch littoral fishes or Crustacea, and in many parts of the 
coast these would be inaccessible to such heavy flightless birds, from the great and sudden 
rise of the shore above the water-edge. 

Dimensions of the Metatarsi of the Bodo. 

Length from the groove, on the middle trochlea, to the apex of the 

iiitercondyloid tubercle 

Least transverse diameter of the shaft ..... 

Antero-posterior diameter of the shaft opposite the articular facet for 
the posterior metatarsus ....... 

Greatest transverse diameter of the upper extremity 

Ditto antero-posterior of ditto, including ento-calcaneal process 
Projection of ento-calcaneal process ..... 

Width of the inferior extremity 

PosTEKiOE Metatarsus. 

Length ........... 

Breadth of the trochlea ........ 

Width of the lower extremity, including the styloid process 

inches, lines. 

5 U 




Ch. I.] OF THE DODO. 103 

The shaft of the metatarsus has neaxly the same width (seven lines) in its middle third, but expands 
greatly towards each extremity and chiefly inwards, so that the inner margin is more concave than the 
external. The shaft is triangularly pyramidal in its two upper thuds, but compressed in the autero-posterior 
diameter below ; the mesial ridge (calcaneal buttress), to which the lateral surfaces incline posteriorly, sub- 
siding inferiorly towards the articular facet for the posterior metatarsus. The great development of the calcaneal 
buttress, wliich is based on the stem of the metatarsus, is one of the characteristics of that bone in Pigeons. 
The section of the shaft is hence triangular above, with the base in front, and the apes corresponding to 
the calcaneal ridge ; below, the section is transversely oblong or suboval. 

The anterior surface of the shaft is concave vertically in its upper and inner portion ; in the rest of its 
extent it is straight longitudinally, and convex transversely. In its upper third, it presents a mesial 
elongated obovate concavity, between the prominent lateral metatarsal elements ; the outer of which is most 
convex, and placed on a plane anterior to the inner, which is more expanded transversely, but less tumid. 
The median element forms the floor of the concavity, which is deepest beneath the overhanging edge of the 
proximal extremity ; into it open the anterior orifices of the short canals, wliich perforate the bone in the 
antero-posterior diameter, and indicate, as in aU other birds, its compound origin ; both have a longitu- 
dinally oval form, but the internal is double the size of the external, the upper angle of which is partially 
concealed. The rough elongated and prominent oval tubercle which gives insertion to the tendon of the M. 
tibialis anticu-s, commences one line beneath the lower border of the inner foramen, and extends along the 
internal margin of the concanty, presenting a deep groove on its upper angle. Below, the anterior surface of 
the external metatarsal element slopes slightly backwards towards the broad outer border ; while that of the 
inner elements is more rapidly rounded off centrally towards the inner edge. 

The external third of the anterior surface, wliich twists on itself above, where it forms the outer wall of 
the concavity, is thus separated from the inner two-thirds, by a raised inter-muscular line, which descends 
from the inner margin of the external inter-osseous foramen to that of a weU marked groove, commencing 
about half an inch above the oval aperture, or short oblique canal, that transmits, as usual, the tendon of 
the 31. adductor annularis ■} tliis muscle arises from the surface indicated. One Hue external to the inter- 
muscular ridge, a medullary foramen, directed downwards, perforates the shaft below its centre. Three 
distinct muscular impressions are met with internally ; the outer descends from between the lower angles of 
the inter-osseous foramina, gradually increasing in breadth beneath the centre of the shaft, towards the middle 
trochlea, half an inch above which it terminates, and gives origin to the Extensor medii. The internal and 
inferior impression, from wMcli the 31. adductor indicis arises, extends from the tibialis tubercle as low as the 
external area, separated from it by an oblique sinuous line, which becomes fainter as it ascends, and dis- 
appears beyond the centre, being replaced by a shglit groove ; its upper and inner boundary descends 
obliquely inwards from the same tubercle, and reaches the inner margin towards its centre. The anterior 
surface of the inner metatarsal element, above this oblique line, gives attaclunent to the 31. extensor jiollicis ; 
it is deeply pitted above on each side of a raised subcentral hne, and below exhibits two or three faint 
gi-ooves parallel to its lower boundary. 

A small medullary foramen occm's nearly on a level with the lower angle of the posterior metatarsal 
facet, and oue line external to the boundary between the surfaces for the 31. M. extensor medii and adductor 
indicis, which are deeply pitted, especially below. 

The external border, wliich is uncovered by muscle, is nan-ow below, but increases in breadth as it 
ascends, and turns round the convex outer metatarsal element so as to appear anteriorly; its anterior 

' The inter-osseous muscles are named in relation to the median line of the body, not to the axis df the foot, 
as ill English works on anatomy. 


104 OSTEOLOGY [Pabt II. 

edge is faint, the posterior is sharper, and defines centrally the outer limit of the surface for the origin of the 
Abductor annularis ; below, it becomes faint, and converges towards the anterior. 

The internal border extends as a prominent naiTow ridge along the inner element in its upper third ; 
it then turns round towards the posterior aspect, subsiding from the antero-posterior expansion of the centre 
of the shaft, the anterior surface being broadly rounded off internally. 

The triangular internal surface of the metatarsus has its base above, and extends below to the inner 
trochlea; in its upper third, it presents a deep pyramidal excavation for the origin of the M. flexor brevis 
poUicis, which also arises from the flat surface, extending beneath the fossa as far as the articular facet for 
the posterior metatarsus, situated at the junction of the middle and lower tliirds of the shaft. This facet 
projects beyond the inner edge, and is covered by a transverse crescentic tract of synovial cartilage. 

The external surface is flat, and separated from the inner by the roimded edge of the calcaneal buttress, 
which subsides towards the metatarsal articular facet. An intermuscular line descends from the posterior 
orifice of the external inter-osseous canal, and, becoming more prominent, sweeps outwards towards the exter- 
nal trochlea, half an inch above which it terminates ; between tliis line, and the posterior edge of the broad 
external border, is an elongated tract of nearly luiiform width, for the origin of the M. abductor annularis. 
The tendon of tliis muscle passes over a groove on the outer sm'face of the peduncle of the external troclilea, 
and is bound down by an oblique annular ligament, attached in front to a small oval tubercle on the outer 
edge, and behind to a rough ridge. A second more strongly marked inter-muscular line commences on the 
oblique outer aspect nine lines below the preceding, about two lines internal to it, and close to the pos- 
terior border of the subsiding calcaneal ridge, which it crosses as it runs obUquely inwards towards the 
articular facet, opposite which it becomes faint ; about two lines lower down, it passes into a thick rough 
sigmoidal ridge, which terminates four lines above the inner trochlea, and gives attachment to the strong 
ligament connecting the metatarsi. An oblique sinus extending to the inner margin, lies between tliis ridge 
and the ai'ticular facet, and lodges the projecting lower angle of the upper extremity of the posterior 
metatarsus. Between this inter-muscular line and that previously mentioned, is a sub-triangular space which 
increases in breadth as it descends from the subsidence of the calcaneal buttress ; the upper part lies on the 
outer surface, extending as high as the ecto-calcaneal process; the lower is deeply concave, and looks back- 
wards; it gives origin to the M. abductor indicis,^ the tendon of which is directed towards the inner inter- 
trochlear notch, resting in a shallow groove, bounded internally by the outer edge of the elevated posterior 
surface of the peduncle of the inner trochlea, and externally by a rough elongated impression parallel to 
its inner bomidai-y. 

The upper extremity, viewed from above, presents in front the transversely reniform tibial articular 
surface, which is broad and rounded internally, narrower externally A semicircular non-articular tract lies 
behind in its concavity ; the isthmus is raised into the prominent hemispherical intercondyloid tubercle, 
separating the iimer large and deep subcircular condyloid fossa, from the shallow and smaller external one ; 
whose anterior edge is bevelled downwards, and iatemally terminates in a slight pit at the base of the inter- 
condyloid eminence, for the insertion of the external semilunar cartilage. The posterior and external sub- 
acute angle projects outwards, and its upper surface, which slopes backwards, gives attaclmient to the 
M. peronevs brevis ; anterior to it, is a broad shallow notch lined by synovial membrane, immediately beneath 
which occurs the oval slightly elevated impression for the insertion of the external lateral ligament. The 
anterior angle presents a small transversely elongated tubercle beneath the edge of the condyloid fossa. 
The posterior and internal angle presents an oblong subvertical surface directed obHquely outwards and 
backwards ; its lower and inner angle is tilted upwards, a sharp ridge descending from it on the floor of 

' This muscle is not mentioned by Cuvier, Meckel, Owen, &c., although it probably exists in all birds. 

Ch. L] of the dodo. 105 

the fossa for the M. flexor brevis poUicis ; this surface gives attachment to the hgament of the great tibio-meta- 
tarsal sesamoid fibro-cartilage, wliich some have regarded, but improperly, as a tarsal element. Anterior to 
it is a narrow triangular tract, with the base above ; the apex is roughened for the insertion of the 
internal lateral hgament, and is prolonged into the ridge-hke inner border. Beneath the anterior and 
internal angle is the obhque oval prominent tubercle, for the insertion of a hgamentous band, binding down 
the tendon of the M. extensor communis digitormn ; internaUv, it is attached to a short rough ridge, along 
the inner margin of the anterior concavity, separated fi'om the preceding by a groove leading upwards and 
outwards, and impressing the anterior edge of the internal condyloid fossa, as it rises into the intercondyloid 

The smooth roimded upper border of the calcaneal ridge [ento-calcaneal process) projects backwards 
from the centre of the posterior border, aud is raised in the middle into a slight convexity. The posterior 
angle of the ridge is expanded and flattened into an irregularly triangular rough plate (calcaneal tuberosity), 
with the base above, extending inwards and overhanging the internal muscular fossa, while the apex 
protrudes beyond the edge of the buttress ; it gives attachment to the tendon of the M. gastrocnenmm. 
Beneath the upper margin of the ento-calcaneal process, internaUy, is a curved oblong concavity, separated 
by a sharp ridge from the inner muscular fossa : it probably lodges an Haversian gland. The ecto-calcaneal 
process is formed by a short, thick plate (one line and two-thirds wide) projecting backwards, nearly 
midway between the internal process and the external edge ; its fi'ee extremity is expanded and broadlv 
grooved ; from the inner hp of the furrow, an osseous bridge passes inwards to join the calcaneal ridge, 
converting the space between these processes into a canal [calcaneal canal ), tliree lines in diameter above, 
and seven lines and a half long ; below, it contracts shghtly, and its inferior orifice is prolonged into a 
short triangular groove on the calcaneal ridge. Tliis canal transmits the tendon of the M. flexor perforans 
digitorum. The deep groove posterior to it, between the calcaneal process and the outer hp of the 
ecto-calcaneal furrow, is closed in the recent state by a fibro-cartilaginous bridge; it gives passage to the 
tendon of the M. flexor iiuUcis perforatus anteriorly, and to that of the M. flexor indicis perforans et perfo- 
ratus posteriorly. The deep channel for the tendon of the Flexor perforan-s pollicis,i\iiTovis the outer surface 
of the ecto-calcaneal process, aud is overhung by the projecting outer hp of its groove, from which a 
fibro-cartilagmous bridge extends, in the recent state, to a short faint ridge on the posterior surface of 
the external and outer angle of the proximal extremity; the groove is thus converted into a canal. 
External to the ridge just mentioned, is a short and shallow groove hned with sjTiovial cartilage, over wliich 
plays the tendon of the Peroneus medius (Cuv.), as it proceeds to join the perforated tendon of the middle toe. 

These grooves diminish in height from witliin outwards. In the recent state a broad shaUow groove 
extends from the outer border of the calcaneal tuberosity to the shghtly projecting edge of the external 
wall of the canal for the tendon of \}s\% perforating flexor of the hind toe; its floor is formed externaUy by 
the fibro-cartilaginous roof of that canal, centrally by the groove on the ecto-calcaneal process, and internally 
by the fibro-cartilaginous roof of the canal transmitting ikm perforated tendons of the inner toe ; it is con- 
verted by the attaclunent of the fascia to its margins into a canal, which transmits most anteriorly the 
tendon of the Flexor medii perforatus, and posteriorly, that of the Flexor medii perforans et perforatn-s, and 
of the Flexor annularis perforatus, the former being internal, and the latter external. 

Viewed from below, the inferior extremity presents the trochleae arranged transversely, so as to form a 
small segment of a large circle ; seen from before, the inferior surfaces of the two inner troclilese lie in the 
same curve, while that of the outer is elevated four lines above the external margin of the middle one, and 
is nearly on the same transverse plane as the internal inter-trochlear notch. The elevation of the outer 
trochlea, and the abbreviation of the corresponding toe, renders the foot more adapted for progression. The 

106 OSTEOLOGY [Part II. 

internal trochlea, which is intermediate in size between the middle and external ones, the former being the 
laro-er, has its axis directed inwards, and is placed obliquely at the apex of a right triangular stem, which 
proiects inwards, beyond a line cb'awn perpendicularly from the inner margin of the central part of the 
shaft • its inferior and internal margin is about a line above the plane of the middle trochlea ; in front it is 
convex transversely, but its posterior and internal angle is elongated backwards and inwards, rendering it 
deeply concave behind. The middle troclilea is deeply grooved ; the inner condyle is the most prominent 
anteriorly, but the external, below and beliind ; the groove expands, at its termination in fi-ont, into a sub- 
circular fossa impressing the stem. The outer trochlea anteriorly is more abruptly defined than the inner, 
and is slightly grooved ; behind, the narrow outer condyle projects greatly. The sides of the troclilea are 
impressed wdth deep pits for the insertion of the strong lateral ligaments. 

The metatarsus in the smaller Pigeons, and especially in the shorter bmbed arboreal species as Treron, 
Lopholamus, &c., has nearly the same form as that in the Dodo ; but in many of the ground Pigeons 
( Gourinm), it is relatively longer and more slender. 

In Treron (Plate XI. Fig. 32-36), the inner metatarsal element is narrowed and flattened beneath 
the proximal extremity for the origin of the M. extensor polUcis, so as to look almost directly inwards ; and 
the surface for the M. adductor anmdaris is relatively smaller, and also not visible fi'om before. In Lopho- 
hemus {ib. Fig. 38-42) and Carpophaga, the muscular surfaces are nearly as in the Dodo. The internal 
inter-osseous foramen is relatively larger, and the tibialis tubercle more remote from it than in the Dodo. In 
Treron, the troclileBe are nearly in the same curve, so also in Lopholamus, and stiU more distinctly in Carpo- 
pliaija ; in all these, however, the inner trochlea is perceptibly more elevated than the outer. The outer 
edge is acute, forming a ridge separating the surfaces for the M. M. adductor and abductor annularis, 
and the areas which give origin to the M. 31. abductor annularis and abductor indicis, are thus increased, 
especially that for the latter. In LopMamus, the large articular facet for the posterior metatarsal is placed 
nearly in the centre of the shaft ; in Treron and Carpopluiga, a Httle below it. In all the typical arboreal 
Pigeons, the ento-calcaneal process is elongated upwards at its expanded extremity ; its upper edge is 
therefore concave (i5. Fig. 34, 40), not straight as in the Dodo ; it also projects more than in the Dodo, 
and thus gives the M. gastrocnemius increased leverage. In LopJiolamm {ib. Fig. 41) and Carpophaga, the 
sculpturing of the ecto-calcaneal process is the same as in the Dodo ; in Treron {ib. Fig. 35), the groove 
for the perforated tendons of the inner toe is converted into a canal. In LopJwlmmus, the groove 
lodging the tendon of the M. adductor annularis is converted into a canal by an osseous bridge, leaving 
above it an aperture leading directly from the anterior to the posterior surface. In Treron and Carpophaga, 
the sharp posterior edge of the calcaneal buttress is slightly notched. 

In Coliimba (Plate XII. Fig. 7), which represents a group intermediate, in habits and in the structure 
of the foot, between the arboreal and ground Pigeons, the form of the metatarsus so much resembles that in 
the Dodo, that it is difUcult to specify the slight differences wliich exist. The outer border, uncovered by 
muscle, is broad Kke that in the Dodo, and twines round the outer metatarsal element, so as to appear on 
the anterior surface beneath the proximal extremity ; this causes a diminution of the surfaces for the 
M. M. abductor annularis and abductor indicis, especially that for the latter. The upper border of the 
ento-calcaneal process is straight ; the form of the ecto-calcaneal process is as in the Dodo, but the ridge 
separating the groove for the tendon of the 31. flexor perforans pollicis from that for the tendon of the 
Peroneus medius, is more developed, and has a tendency to convert the former into a canal. The inner 
trochlea is less depressed than in the Dodo, the relative levels of the puUies being nearly as in Treron, &c. 
This bone may be readily procured, for comparison with the figures of the metatarsus of the Dodo. 

Ch. I.] ■ OF THE DODO. 107 

In Diduncuhis (Plate X. Fig. 9-9 e), and Phajjs (Plate XI. Fig. 20-24), the metatarsus is 
elongated and slender, being of equal length in both, ■ffhile they closely resemble each other in form and 
proportion ; in each, the flattened outer border is still broader than in Columha, and the surfaces for the 
M. M. abductor annularis and alductor indicis are hence more reduced, from the encroachment of this 
border, which is widest in the centre, and contracts slightly downwards towards the inner trochlea. The 
area for the M. extensor polUcis is relatively larger than in the arboreal Pigeons. The upper border of the 
ento-calcaneal process is straight iu both ; in Bidunculus, the groove for the tendon of the M. flexor perforans 
poUicis is converted into a canal (Plate X. Pig. 9 d), and that for the tendons of the perforated flexors of 
the inner toe, is also nearly closed. In PJiaps, the outer ridge of the groove for the M. flexor perforans polUcis 
is very apparent, as in Colimiha. In Bidunculus, the troclileae are arranged exactly as iu the Dodo ; the 
groove for the tendon of the M. adductor annularis, is covered posteriorly by an osseous band, as in Lopho- 
kemus, and in Phaps, where it is narrower. In Phaps, the iimer troclilea is more elevated than in the 
Dodo, but the outer is more abbreviated than in Bidunculus, and more like that in the Dodo ; the posterior 
metatarsal facet in both, is placed below the junction of the lower with the upper two -thirds of the bone. 

The elongation and relative slenderness of the metatarsus, the great breadth and flatness of the outer 
border, and the position of the articular facet, are reproduced in the Solitaire ; and the inner margin, 
which is acute in Bidunculus, is replaced in Pimps, by a narrow plane as in the SoUtairc. 

In Geophaps (Plate XL Fig. 2G-30. Plate XII. Fig. 8), the metatarsus is shorter and more robust 
than in the two preceding species ; and the outer margin, which is broad above, passes in the lower 
third of the shaft, into a narrow ridge separating the surfaces for the M. M. adductor and abductor 
annularis. The arrangement of the troclilese is precisely the same as in the Dodo. In Geophaps, Phaps, and 
Bidunculus, the tihialis tubercle encroaches on the inner inter- osseous foramen, as in the Solitaire, while in 
the Dodo, it is lower down. In Geophaps, as in Bidunculus, the grooves for the perforated tendons of 
the inner toe, and the A&si^ flexor tendon of the liind toe, are converted into canals. 

In Goura (Plate XI. Fig. 11-15), the metatarsus has nearly the same form as in Phaps, but the outer 
border is relatively narrower. In Phaps, Geophaps, and Goura, the ecto-calcaneal, however, is thicker than 
in the Dodo, &c., and is grooved externally for the tendon of the deep flexor of the hind toe. 

From these details we may therefore conclude, that the metatarsus of the Dodo possesses the famUv 
characters of that bone in the Columhidce. 

In the typical Gallina, the calcaneal buttress is feebly developed and speedily subsides, and the shaft is 
thus more compressed in the antero-posterior diameter ; it is, however, as strongly marked as in Pigeons, in 
the short and robust prismatic metatarsus of Pterocles; and it is more apparent in the Cracida, and Megapodida 
than in the comtmon Cock. The external segment of the posterior surface is subconcave transversely, except 
in Pterocles. The ridge which supports the spur also distinguishes the metatarsus in the typical genera of the 
GalUncB ; that pecuhar appendage is not the homologue of the hallux, as has often been supposed. Swainson 
long ago pointed out its true nature ; it is reaUy a portion of the dermo-skeleton, which becomes united to the 
metatarsal element of the ento-skeleton, by an extension of the ossific process in the intervening Hgamentous 
texture; just as the teeth, which belong to the splanchnic division of the exo-skeleton, become anchylosed to 
the jaws in several fishes and reptiles. The hind toe is the true hallux, and is present in the great majority 
of bii'ds. It has the normal number of phalanges, namely, two, and is supported by the accessory 
metatarsus ; the outer, or fifth toe, is invariably absent in birds. In most of the Gallince, the tube which 
transmits the tendon of the 31. flexor digitorum perfoi-ans pierces, as it were, the thickness of the ento-calca- 
neal process, and opens below upon, or to the inner side of the calcaneal buttress, which runs up to terminate 


108 OSTEOLOGY [Part II. 

in the tliick pedvmcle forming the ecto- calcaneal process; in Pigeons and Pferocles, the ento-calcaneal 
process is thicker, and the tube terminates on the outer side of the buttress, which is continuous with that 
process. lu Pterocles and in all the typical GalUrue, the inner troclilea is somewhat more elevated than the 
external; but in the Cracida, it is more depressed. In the breadth of the inferior extremity, in the 
greater equality in size of the troclilese, and in the great depression of the internal, beneath the level 
of the external one, the metatarsus of Megapodius approaches nearest to that in the terrestrial Pigeons. 
The variation in form and relative size of the surfaces giving attachment to the inter-osseous muscles, 
need not be dwelt upon here. The groove transmitting the tendon of the 31. adductor annularis is in many 
of the Gallina converted into a canal by an osseous floor, as in certain Pigeons, both terrestrial and arboreal. 
The principal point, then, ia which the metatarsus of the Dodo differs from that in the ordinary GalUrue, is 
the greater development of the calcaneal buttress, which terminates superiorly ia the ento-calcaneal process. 

In the iVmerican Vulture [Cathartes Californianns), the metatarsus is compressed in the antero-poste- 
rior diameter, and deeply excavated in front, beneath the proximal extremity ; the section of the shaft, both 
above and below, is therefore transversely oblong. The outer segment of the posterior surface is trans- 
versely subconcave; the calcaneal process is depressed, broad, and imperforate, presenting two broad 
shallow grooves posteriorly ; from its centre extends downwards a moderately developed ridge subsiding 
towards the middle of the shaft ; the external trochlea is more depressed than in the Dodo. 

In the Vulture {Gffs fulvus) and Eagle {HaUaiitus alblcilla), the shaft of the metatarsus is sub- 
triedal, and the broad posterior surface presents a shallow groove in its whole extent. The wide, vertically 
concave, external border looks directly outwards iu the Eagle, but in the Vulture has an incUnation forwards 
and inwards ; and the anterior surface slopes rapidly backwards towards the internal edge. The surfaces 
for the origin of the M. M. adductor indicis and extensor medii are very small, wlule that for the 
Extensor poUicis occupies the upper half of the anterior surface. The various grooves and tubes for the 
transmission of the, flexor tendons in the Dodo and Pigeons, as well as iu the Gallma, are represented by 
a single, deep, semilunar notch extending from the subquadrate plate, representing the ento-calcaneal pro- 
cess, to a prominent tubercle forming the outer and posterior angle of the proximal articular extremity ; 
this process is not supported by a ridge descending on the posterior surface of the shaft, it is only a little 
more extended downwards basaUy, than at its free flattened extremity. 

In the Vulture, the trocMese are more nearly on a level ; the external, as in Cathartes, being much lower 
tlian in the Dodo and terrestrial Pigeons. In the Eagle, the trochlefe are relatively narrower ; the inner is 
placed on the same plane as the middle one, and its iiiternal and posterior angle is more produced than in 
the Dodo and other Pigeons, or than in Cathartes. The inter-condyloid tubercle is relatively very small in 
the Vulture and Eagle. "While the metatarsus in the Dodo is distinguished from that of the ordinary 
Gallina, only by a few and comparatively sHght peculiarities, in wliich it approaches the typical Pigeons, it 
differs from the con'esponding bone in the Vulture and Eagle, in the form of the shaft ; in the presence 
of the complex ecto-calcaneal process, and of the higldy developed calcaneal buttress ; and in the greater 
elevation of the external troclilea : points of distinction so important as, even overlooking innumerable 
minor dissimilarities, to preclude any idea of the affinity of the Dodo to these raptorial forms. The 
metatarsus of the Dodo, in the presence of the calcaneal buttress, resembles that of Cathartes more than 
its homologue in the less abeiTant raptorial birds ; but this will not outweigh other important difl'er- 
ences, and is such as not to indicate afiinity, but simply a general resemblance in mechanical construction. 

Ch. I.] OF THE DODO. 109 

The posterior metatarsus in the Dodo (Phite XI. Fig. 7 — 10), is formed by a thick oblong plate, 
twisted on itself from beliind forwards, and from witliin outwards ; the Hne of flexure corresponding to its 
diagonal. The channel thus formed [ih. Fig. 9) lodges the fexor tendons of the liind toe. The lower 
extremity supports the transversely elongated troclilea, which is very sHghtly concave in front, but beliind, 
it is grooved for the deep _/ea;(5r tendon; it is broader internally than externally, and also projects back- 
wards beyond the plane of the stem to a greater extent internally. 

The thin outer margin of the triangular posterior portion of the stem is concave : its lower angle forms 
a subquadrate process projecting outwards beyond the trochlea {styloid process), which gives attachment to 
the annular ligament ; its anterior surface is covered by a thin layer of synovial cartilage, the superficial 
fiexor tendon of the inner toe ghding on it. The upper extremity, which articulates with the metatarsus, 
viewed from before, consists of a semicircular plate, forming the anterior wall of the channel ; its tloick 
convex, external border is roughened in front for the attachment of the strong uiter-osseous hgament ; the 
upper part of its subconcave anterior aspect is covered by articular cartUage, and the concavity probably 
gave origin to some fibres of the M. adductor indicis. The floor of the channel is wider below than above ; and 
the lower untwisted portion of the stem projects obliquely backwards from the articular plate, wliich is per- 
pendicular when in apposition with the metatarsus ; the rounded inner margin of the former expands above 
into the triangular surface of the floor of the channel. The tendon of the M. extensor poUicis passes along 
the posterior surface, and is bound down immediately above the troclilea by an annular ligament, attached 
externally to a roughened portion of the outer edge, and internally to a narrow pit close to the imier 

In all Pigeons, the shape of the posterior metatarsus is precisely the same as in the Dodo ; — the styloid 
process exists in all (Plate XI. Pig. 16, 18, 2.5, 31, 37, 43). After observing that peculiar character, I 
was kindly allowed to test the Columliiie affinity of the Bldunculus, by removing its accessory metatarsal 
(Plate X. Pig. 10, 10 a), wliich proved to be a miniature of that in the Dodo. In the arboreal Pigeons, it 
is relatively larger than in the Gour'ma, and attains its maximum in LophoUtmus. 

In the Gallinm, the posterior metatarsus is relatively shorter, and the twist less distinctly marked than in^ 
the Dodo and Pigeons. In the common Cock, the cui'ved plate is much tliicker, and hence the chamiel 
more open, but the under or trochlear portion projects relatively farther back. In the Cracidce, it is 
thinner, and more distinctly twisted ; and from its greater elongation, its articular surface is placed lower 
down. In Megapodius, the outer margin of the curved plate is less concave, conceaUng from behind the 
expanded articular surface ; but the essential distinction in all, lies in the absence of the styloid process. 
In Cailiartes, it is very small, subppamidal, and not bent on itself; the anterior surface is nearly flat ; 
its lower extremity is elevated considerably above the internal trochlea, so that the hind toe is, as in the 
tj-pical Gallina, &c., above the plane of the heel. 

In the Vulture, it is narrow transversely, and shghtly twisted, the anterior surface being broadly con- 
cave, and the lower extremity placed nearly in contact with the inner margin of the metatarsus. In the 
Eagle,^ also, the peculiar flexure of the posterior metatarsus almost disappeai's, the bone being nearly flat, and 
consequently it is readily distniguished from the corresponding bone in the Dodo ; it is also destitute of 
the styloid process ; and, as in Cathartcs and the Vulture, the lower portion is shortened, and projects 
backwards only to a very shglit extent. We therefore find, that as in the metatarsus, so also in the accessory 
metatarsal, the Dodo deviates more from the Raptores than from the Gallina, but is really distinct from both. 

' The figure furnished by Mr. Owen, of tliis bone, in situ, is evidently taken fi-om a badly mounted skeleton, in 
which it is placed in an unnatural position, as tbehgaments would retain the accessory metatarsus close to the main one. 



[Part II. 

In the Dodo, the hind toe is about one third shorter than the inner, which, as in all 
strictly ground Pigeons, is distinctly longer than the outer ; and the middle digit is not 
much longer than either of the lateral toes, but it is shorter than the metatarsus. The ungual 
joint of the outer toe only is preserved; the others are carefully restored in Plate XII. 
Fig. 1, 1 a, 1 (5, as to length, from the foot covered with integuments, in the British 
Museum.' The phalanges have the usual form, and hence, it is unnecessary to enter into 
detail ; the metatarsal articular surface of the first joint of each toe is seen in Plate XII. 
Fig. 2. The proximal {ib. Fig. 4,) and distal {ib. Fig. 4 «,) articular facets of one of the 
intermediate joints, viz., the second of the outer toe, are also figured. 

Hind Toe. 




inch, lines. 

inco. lines. 

inch. lines. 

inch, lines. 

1 4 

1 6^ 

1 6 

1 Oi 

.. 11 

1 .. 

.. 7 

.. 9 

.. 6 
.. 6 
.. 7 

Extreme Length 

of Tst Phalanx 

2nd ditto. 

3rd do. 

4th do. 

5th (ungual) do. 

The proximal phalanx of the hind-toe is at least twice as long as the ungual segment ; their combined 
length in the perfect foot in the British Museum is about two inches. It is longer than that of the outer, 
and shorter and flatter than that of the two inner ihgits, but equal in length to the posterior metatarsal. 
It may be distinguished from the other proximal phalanges, by the projection of the outer angle of its 
posterior extremity ; by the shallow hinder articular concavity, and by the feeble development of its inter- 
condyloid ridge ; by the great expansion of the distal extremity below, and the encroaclmient of the pits 
for the lateral hgaments on it above. 

The proximal phalanx of the inner toe appears nearly double the length of the penultimate ; its distal extrem- 
ity is twisted shghtly outwards towards the axis of the foot ; the outer margin is also more concave than the 
inner ; the concave metatarsal facet is reniform, the inner angle being most elongated ; the absence of an 
inter-condyloid ridge on it, distinguishes this joint from the corresponding one of the middle toe, to which it 
is equal in length. The axis of the second phalanx is also directed outwards, but its distal extremity is 
bent inwards ; it is strongly arched longitudinally, and its external margin is also more concave than 
the internal. 

The proximal phalanx of the middle toe is broader and more robust than that of the inner, and is also 
twisted outwards towards its distal extremity, but its posterior articular surface is divided into two equal 
fossae by an intermediate ridge, fitting into the groove ou the middle trochlea. The distal extremity of the 

' To Messrs. J. E. and G. R. Gray, I am under great obligations for the liberality with which they have 
allowed me to consult the public coUeotions under their care. To the former, palaeontologists and anatomists are most 
deeply indebted for the Osteological Collection now forming in the British Museum, which will enable the geologist to 
avail himself of the vast stores of fossU remains coUected by the enlightened liberality of the Trustees. Hitherto, 
no means of turning them to account for the advancement of science have existed, as specimens cannot be removed 
for consultation, and few private persons possess collections, or can be at the expense of bringing skeletons 
to the British Museum to institute the necessary comparisons. 

Ch.I.] of the dodo. Ill 

second phalanx is twisted inwards, as also that of the third, which is much arched longitudinally. These 
phalanges decrease distad, progressively, by one third. 

The proximal phalanx of the outer toe is shorter than that of the other digits ; its inner edsje is more 
concave than the outer, the distal extremity being twisted inwards, while in the two inner it is bent out- 
wards. The second, thu'd, and fouiih joints are much abbreviated, the two latter are nearly equal, and 
are only slightly shorter than the second, which is half the length of the first. 

The ungual phalanx is a little longer than the second joint ; it is short, curved, bluntly acuminate, and 
only slightly compressed laterally ; the lateral surface presents a deep groove, the edges of wliich almost 
unite to form a canal towai-ds the apex; the tubercle for the insertion of thejiexor tendon is feebly deve- 
lo])ed ; and the articular facet is equi-triangular, and slightly concave vertically. 

In the arboreal Pigeons, as Treroii (Plate XII. Fig. 6, 6 a), the inner toe is much shorter than the outer, 
and is nearly equalled in length by the hallux. The second and tliird joints of the outer toe aie elongated; 
wliile in Columha [ih. Fig. 7, 7 a), they are shortened, and hence the lateral toes are nearly equal. In Geopliaps 
[;lb. Fig. 8, S a), these phalanges are more abbreviated, and the outer toe is shorter than the inner, as in 
the Dodo. AU the ground Pigeons have this character more or less marked. The peripheral joints in these 
Pigeons, are relatively less abbreviated than in the Dodo ; in it, the ambulatory modification of a strictly 
insessorial foot is carried to its maximum, but the persistence of typical characters is highly suggestive. 

The arrangement of the tendons in the foot of the Dodo, is precisely the same as in that of Pigeons 
&c. ; but throws no special light on its affinities. The sesamoid or glenoid fibro-cartilages on the plantar 
aspect of the metatarso-phalangeal articulations of the three anterior toes are represented as seen from 
above, in Plate XII. Fig. 2, a, b, c. They are tumly attached by ligament to the first phalanx, and 
but loosely to the peduncle of the trochlea by the reflected synovial membrane; anteriorly they are 
moulded to the trochlear surface, and posteriorly grooved for the flexor tendons ; the theca converting 
the groove into a canal. The internal fibro-cartilage is acted on directly by the attachment of ihe. perforated 
flexor tendon of the inner toe to the theca, just as the corresponding sesamoid fibro-cartilage at the tibio- 
metatarsal articulation is moved by the Plantaris : in the laind toe, the corresponding glenoid ligament 
was probably without a definite figure. The grooved posterior surface of the external glenoid ligament with 
the portion of the theca attached to it slit open, is seen at the top of fig. 3, Plate XII. 

In adcUtion to the strong lateral ligaments at the phalangeal articulations, there occui's a glenoid fibro- 
cartilage on the plantar aspect, wliich blends at the sides with the lateral ligaments. Like those above 
mentioned, each is fiimly united to the distal phalanx, and moulded to the trocldear head of the proximal 
joint ; and to it is attached du-ectly the tendinous slip, which acts on the distal phalanx. At the last joint, they 
are feebly developed, and ahnost membranous ; the deep flexor tendon being inserted into the tubercle 
beneath the articular facet of the ungual phalanx. In the Dodo, these fibro-cartilages remain, but are 
slu-unk and indurated, and when covered by varnish, as in the Oxford foot, they very much resemble irre- 
gularly-shaped sesamoid bones. Those of the outer toe are shewn in fig. 3, « being the upper; the last is 

The celebrated physician and anatomist, Carus, when at Oxford, pointed out to Dr. Kidd a pecuhar 
structure in the ossified tendons of \h& flexor muscles, and in his Travels-' since published, he states "that 
the ossified tendons are divided into several pieces, connected by joints (internodia ?), an arrangement 

' " Ich machte Kidd auf eine besondre Bildmig der verkncicherten Sehnen der Beugemuskeln aulinerksam."* — 
England u. Sclwttland im JaJire, 1S44, vol. i. p. 373. 

* " Die knochemen Sehnen zerfallen in mehrere Stucken, welche durch Gelenke verbundeu siiid. Eine EiuricLtung, die soust an 
dergleichen Selinenknoclien mil' niclit bekannt ist." 

2 G 


whicli he had not observed elsewhere in similar sesamoid bones (Sehnenknochen):" the supposed anomaly, 
however, disappears on moistening the foot, and examining the glenoid hgaments by transmitted light. 
A similar fibro-cartilagiaQus tliickeniug of a crescentic form, with the concavity directed forwards, exists in 
the dorsal fibrous capsule of the joint connecting the two first phalanges of the middle toe, the tendon of 
the Extensor communis digitorum ghding over it. 

The relative length of the toes, and of their individual segments, in the typical Gallince, are nearly as 
in the Dodo : the joints of each toe, exclusive of the ungual phalanges, decrease gradually in length distad ; 
except in the outer, in which the penultimate is equal to, or longer than the second, and the second and 
third are occasionally equal. Like the metatarsus, the phalanges are relatively more robust in the Dodo. 
From the shortness of the accessory metatarsal bone, the hind toe is not on the same plane as the heel, 
when the digits are expanded and the foot m contact with a flat sui-face ; but in the abberrant Cracidm and 
Megapodida, it is more depressed. 

In the Eagle, the hind toe is a little longer than the inner, and the latter is shorter but more robust 
than the outer, the middle being the longest, but slender when compared with the inner. In the hind toe, 
the ungual is equal to the proximal joint, which is stronger, broader, especially posteriorly, and longer in 
relation to the metatarsi than in the Dodo. The short, cuboidal proximal phalanx of the inner toe is only 
one third of the penultimate, and is sometimes anchylosed to it ; the latter is nearly equal to the greatly 
developed ungual joint. The second joint of the middle digit is only one half of the length of the others, 
which are subequal ; wliile in the outer, the penultimate is longer than the proximal, the intermediate 
joints are equal, and only half as long as the latter, the ungual phalanx being the longest. Thus in the 
two inner toes the ante-penultimate segments are much abbreviated, and in the outer, the two distal seg- 
ments are relatively more elongated, but the tlu-ee proximal, though shortened, have the same ratio to each 
other as in the Dodo, &c. The ungual phalanges progressively decrease in length and strength from witliin 
outwards, the liinder being the largest ; the laterally compressed, subangular core is much curved and 
sharply uncinate ; the vascular grooves in that of the Dodo are absent ; the articular surface is more 
elongated and concave vertically, and the inferior tubercle is much larger. 

In the Vultiu'e, the middle toe much exceeds in length the lateral digits, which are nearly equal, and 
the hallux is shorter than the inner toe. The phalanges of the liind toe are equal ; but the proximal joint of 
the inner toe is relatively twice as long as in the Eagle, but still only half the length of the distal phalanges 
which are subequal ; in the middle toe the joints decrease in length, progressively, to the ungual, which, 
however, is longer than the penultimate phalanx ; of the outer, the penultimate is shorter than the proximal 
phalanx, wliich is equal to the ungual ; the second and tliird joints are also equal, and each only half 
as long as the penultimate. The Vulture thus exliibits a less raptorial foot than the Eagle. In Cathartes, 
the hallux is not half as long as the inner toe, which is shorter than the outer, and the middle digit 
is also much longer than the lateral toes ; but the ])halanges of the hind toe are equal. In the inner digit, 
the penultimate phalanx is shorter than the others, which are nearly equal ; the joints of the middle toe 
decrease progressively to the ungual phalanx, which is longer than the penultimate ; in the outer, the proxi- 
mal is longer than the distal phalanx, the tliree intermediate being nearly equal, and about half as long as 
the first. The great strength of the claws is still remarkable in tliis modified raptorial sub-type. 

Tlie evidence furnished by the toes, corroborates that derived from a consideration of the metatarsi, 
regarding the non-raptorial affinities of the Dodo, and its closer approximation to the GaUince, from 
which, however, it is equally distinct. 


Osteology of the Solitaii-e. 
(Plates XIII., XIV., and XV.) 

The osteological remains of the Solitaire, or supposed Dodo of Rodriguez, are few in number 
and imperfect, being either much mutilated, or thickly incrusted with stalagmite ; sufficient, 
however, exists to indicate with certainty the true affinities of that extinct bird. 

The particulars regarding the discovery of these bones, the probable localities in which 
they were found, and the principal inferences derived from the study of them, have already 
been fully described in this work (p. 46, supra). 

Dimensions of the Cranium of the Solitaire. 

1 . Length from the occipital condyle to the extremity of the inter-olfactory septum 

2. Greatest breadth in front of the post-orbital processes 

3. Height in the centre ..... 

4. From the occipital facet to the cranio-facial hne . 

.5. do. do. to the anterior margin of the orbit 

6. the occipital condyle to the optic foramen . 

7. the optic foramen to the anterior margin of the orbit 

8. the anterior margin of the temporal notch to that of the orbit 

No allowance is made for the tliickness of the incrustation, so that two lines at least must be deducted 
from some of these measurements. 

















The interesting cranial fragment is figured in Plate XIII. (Fig. 1-4), from drawings kindly fui'nished to 
us by M. de Blainville, the distinguished successor of Cuvier. It is most complete on the right side, but the 
paroccipital process is mutilated ; inferiorly, the anterior part of the rostrum and the adjacent part of the 
inter-olfactory septum is destroyed ; on the left side the prefrontal is broken away, and the parietes of 
the cerebral cavity removed ; from the posterior angle of tliis vacuity a fissiu-e passes inwards through the 
temporal notch, and another transversely through the occipital facet ; but the par-occipital process is more 
perfect than on the right side. The mandible has been detached at the cranio-facial hne, exposing to 
view the projecting inter-olfactory septum, and the turbinated alee of the ethmoid, together with the entrance 

114 OSTEOLOGY [Part II. 

to the olfactory fossee, as would be the case under similar circumstances in the Dodo. The fragment is so 
thickly covered with stalagmite as to render a minute description impossible, the deposit is thickest on the 
anterior and posterior parts of the upper surface, and the central tract hence appears depressed; an exami- 
nation of the interior of the cranium has, however, convinced us, that tliis appearance is not due to any 
depression of the cranial roof. 

A careful examination and contrast of the figures of the cranium of the Solitaire with those of the 
corresponding part in the Dodo, will prove the family aflinity of these extinct forms, as well as their 
specific distinctness. 

The cranium in the Solitaire is narrower and longer than in the Dodo, and is entirely destitute of the 
pecuhar frontal protuberance ; the inchvidual elements, also, are less ventricose : its greatest breadth, as in 
the Dodo, is a little in front of the post-orbital processes ; it probably decreased in width more rapidly 
forwards to the cranio-facial hne. The orbits are more excavated, and the inter-orbital septum thinner, as 
in the more common forms of the Colnmhidm ; the prefrontal, especially below, is much less tumid than in 
the Dodo, and the rostrum is narrower. It resembles the cranium of the Dodo, and differs from that of the 
other known Pigeons, in the position of the oKactory fossae, which are placed immediately in front of the 
cerebral cavity ; the olfactory foramen, on each side, opening directly into the base of its respective fossa. 
The anchylosis of the prefrontal with the other elements of the cranium, may be regarded as one of the 
best proofs of the family affinity of the Solitaire and Dodo. 

The occipital facet is vertical as in the Dodo ; there is a caecal excavation of the calcareous incrustation 
above the foramen magnum ; does this indicate the mesial supra-occipital orifice in t!ie Dodo and other 
Pigeons ? The minute configuration of this aspect, as far as can be judged, closely resembles that in the 
Dodo, and the same may be said of the lateral and inferior facets ; but the posterior angles of the upper 
surface are bent downwards, so as to encroach on the temporal segments of the orbito-temporal fossae ; 
hence the temporal notches are less apparent when viewed from above, and the surfaces bearing the 
muscular impressions, slope more rapidly downwards than in the Dodo, but to a less extent than in the 
common Pigeons. The prefronto-ethmoidal fissure is not so completely obliterated as in the Dodo ; 
and the evasation of the turbinated ala is less marked, and more resembling that in Goura. The profile hne 
would sweep, gently convex, downwards from the vertex to the cranio-facial line. The cranial cavity in its 
form corresponds to that in the Dodo. 

Although we have ventiu'ed to differ from the illustrious Cuvier, who regarded tliis cranium as 
belonging to a galHnaceous bu-d, we trust we shall be excused ; since a careful comparison of it with the 
skuU of the Dodo at Oxford, has left no doubt on our minds of its affinity with that bird, and consequently 
with the Columhida. Unfortunately no portion of the upper mandible is yet known, but we may conjec- 
ture that it was less robust and more depressed than in the Dodo, and that it was only a httle longer than 
the cranium. Judging from the figure given by Leguat, the caruncular ridge forming the hne of demarca- 
tion between the pecidiar columbhie cere and the feathered skin of the head, was placed at the proximal 
extremity of the beak, and not on the forehead as in the Dodo. 

We may hence suppose that the Sohtaire is less remote from the Treronma than the Dodo, with which, 
however, it is inseparably united in the family BidhuB ; the absence of the frontal protuberance and the 
other dissimilarities previously mentioned, estabhsh provisionally its generic distinction, and the chscovery 
of the beak wiU settle this question. 

Less satisfactory evidence is deducible from the mutilated sternum (Plate XIII. Fig. 5 & 6), which 
is similarly incrusted with stalagmite. It is most perfect on the left side, the left costal process remaining, 
with the costal margin ; but the external lateral processes are removed, and probably, also, a considerable 

Ch. II.] 



portion posteriorly, including the mesial emarginations ; the origin of the keel is, however, preserved. The 
form of the manubrial process differs from that in the sternum of the GaU'uia, but resembles that in most 
Pigeons; on tlie contrary, the costal process is less horizontal than in Pigeons, and ascends obliquely 
forwards as in the Gallhue. The articular surfaces are apparently tliree in number, with intervening 
cellular spaces, as in Goura, &c. The sternum appears to have had a well developed keel, but unfortimately, 
there is not enough preserved to indicate its size and form ; on the purpose of the keel in this 
flightless bird, I may refer to Mr. Strickland's remarks.^ The anterior edge of the keel is grooved, and 
deeply concave, as in the Galllna, but the anterior, probably, precurved angle is deficient ; the deep 
pneumatic excavation is seen posteriorly, beneath the manubrial process ; and there is a deep depression at 
the root of the costal process, anteriorly, as in Goura, &c. This sternal fragment is four inches and a 
half long, and four inches broad. 

The absence of any trace of the mesial fissure in the fragment preserved, and the form of the manubrial 
process, distinguish this sternum from that of the typical Gall'mce. The great development of the costal 
process, and the small nimiber of costal articular facets, indicate a greater difference between this sternum 
and that of the Eagle or Vulture, &c. The presence of the keel is a proof of its non-affinity to the 

The left Immerns (Plate XIV. Fig. 1 to 3) in the Parisian Museum is also incrasted, and cannot be 
satisfactorily compared with that in Pigeons, which is the less to be regretted, since this bone furnishes no 
distinctive character ; it is sufficient, that there is nothing to prevent its being regarded, as belonging to a 
Columbine form. It is four inches eight Unes long ; the ^Jectoral crest was broken off before the bone became 
incrasted ; the large pneumatic depression does not necessarily imply the existence of pneumaticity, wliicli 
was probably absent. The short obtuse process of the rudimentary metacarpal of the thumb, covered with 
horn, as in Cliauna, &c., formed " the little round mass under the feathers, as big as a musket ball," 
which the Solitaire employed as a weapon ; the length of the wing, as indicated by that of the humerus, 
would give sufficient leverage for this purpose. Although the wing was wholly inadequate for flight, 
it might assist this large bird in running. 

Bimeimons of the bones of the leg of the Solitaire in the Andersonian Musemii. 

1. Right femur (Plate XIV. Pig. 4-7.) 

Length from the inter-condyloid notch to the upper surface of the neck 
from the external condyle to the extremity of the great trochanter 
Transverse diameter of the shaft 
Antero-posterior diameter of ditto 
Transverse diameter of the superior extremity 
of the lower ditto 

2. Left femur, with the extremities mutilated 
Transverse diameter of the shaft 
Antero-posterior diameter of ditto . 

3. Length of fragment of the right femui', with the extremities mutilated 
Transverse diameter of the shaft ...... 

Antero-posterior diameter of ditto ...... 

^ Part I. Chap. 2. p. 54, supra. 






r 5 
















[Part II. 

Left tibia (Plate XV. Fig. 1-1«.) 

Length from the inter-condyloid groove to the termination of the fibular 

ridge ..66 

Transverse diameter of the shaft 
Antero-posterior diameter of ditto 
Breadth of the lower extremity 
Antero-posterior diameter of ditto 


Left metatarsus (Plate XV. Fig. 2-25.) 

Probable length from the lower border of the middle trochlea to the 

summit of the iBtcr-condyloid tubercle 

Transverse diameter of the shaft 

Antero-posterior diameter of ditto, at the upper border of the articular 

surface for posterior metatarsal 

Transverse diameter of the lower extremity 

Distance from the upper border of the articular facet for the posterior 

metatarsal to the internal inter-trochlear notch .... 









6. Right metatarsus 

(Plate XV. Fig. 4.) 

Antero-posterior diameter of the proximal articular surface, (to the cal- 
neal canal.) .......... 

Bones of the Solitaire in the Parisian Collection. 

Left femur (Plate XIV. Fig. 8 to 10.) 

Length from the inter-condyloid notch to the upper surface of the neck 6 4 

from upper edge of the trochanter major to the external condyle 

Transverse diameter of the shaft ....... 

Antero-posterior diameter of tlitto 

Transverse diameter of the upper extremity 

of the lower ditto ...... 

Thickness of incrustation more than one line. 








2. Eight metatarsal bone 

(PlateXV. Fig. 3-3f/.) 

Length from the middle trochlear groove to the inter-condyloid tubercle 

from the external trochlea to the external condyloid fossa 

fr'om the internal ditto to the internal ditto 

Breadth of the upper extremity ...... 

Antero-posterior diameter of ditto ...... 

Breadth of the lower extremity ..... r 

Projection of the ento-calcaneal process .... 

Thickness of incrustation about one line. 

le 7 














As formerly mentioned, thiee/emora are contained in the Andersonian Miiseimi, two right and one left ; 
and a left femur incrusted mth stalagmite, in the Parisian Collection (Plate XIV. Fig. S-10). The most 
perfect of the former is the right femur {i6. Fig. 4-7), wliich is nearly entire, and belongs to a young indi- 
vidual ; it is destitute of the pneumatic foramen, as in all Pigeons, except Goiira. The femur, in general, 
does not yield any very distinctive character, but that in question resembles very closely in all respects, the 
same bone in Pigeons ; it is not arched forwards as in the tvjjical Rajotores. In a left femur of the same size, 
Imt much mutilated at the extremities, and belonging probably to an adult female, the compact parietes of the 
shaft were one eighth of an inch externally, and one line and a half internally ; while the femur of the gigantic 
Crane, of larger size, but possessed of pneumaticity, is only half a Line in thickness. The cancellated tissue 
extends into the medullary cavity for a short distance at each end, and chiefly along the inner wall 
inferiorly ; and the medullary cavity is lined by a thin osseous lamina, with few and minute 
perforations. The tliird specimen, also of the left side, is equally imperfect, but is much larger 
than either of the former, and belongs evidently to an adult male ; it is larger than the corresponding bone 
in any gallinaceous bird, but is exactly equal in size to the coated femur {ib. Pig. 8-10), when 
allowance is made for the thickness of the incrustation. There can be no reasonable doubt, that these bones 
appertain to one and the same species, the diversity in size being attributable to differences in age and sex. 

The fragment of the left tibia (Plate XV. Pig. 1, 1 a) closely resembles the corresponding bone in 
Goura ; and judging from analogy, the upper tliird is removed, so that its length, when perfect, was 
probably nine inches and a half ; the thickness of the parietes of the shaft is about one Hue. Its distal 
articular SOTface corresponds in size to the proximal extremity of the perfect metatarsus {ib. Pig. 3, 3 c). 
Its length indicates a bird of great stature, and fuUy justifies Leguat's statement, that the Solitaire is 
taller than a Turkey. Like the humerus and femur, this bone furnishes, in general, but few characters of 
importance ; the osseous bridge under which the tendon of the M. extensor communis digitoriim passes, 
distinguishes it at once from the corresponding bone in the Struthionidce. The styloid inferior extremity 
of ihefbida was probably more elongated dowTiwards than in Goura. 

Fortunately we are enabled to compare that important bone — the metatarsus, with its homologue in the 
Dodo, and thus to test the evidence afforded by the cranium. The right metatarsus [ib. Fig. 3-3 d), in 
the Parisian Collection, is covered with stalagmite ; nevertheless, it enables us to estabhsh the family affinity 
of these extinct birds. It differs from that in the Dodo, iu its greater length and relative sleuderness, 
the ratio being as seven to five : but the metatarsus of the Solitaire resembles that of the Dodo, in the 
form of the shaft ; in the projection of the ento-calcaneal process, and in the great development of its 
supporting buttress ; in the form of the ecto-calcaneal process ; in the calcaneal tube opening on the outer 
surface of the buttress ; in the presence of the articular facet for the accessory metatarsus ; in the expansion of 
the distal extremity, and in the relative levels of the trochlcBe. We are enabled to state more distinctly the 
differences in minute configuration between this bone in the Dodo and Solitaire, by an examination of the 
left metatarsus iu the Andersonian Museum {jh. Fig. 2-2 ^), wliich exactly resembles the Parisian 
specimen in form and size ; and although much mutUated at the extremities, it supplies information other- 
wise unattainable. The proximal extremity of a right metatarsus {ih. Fig. 4), found with the preceding, 
and belonging to an immature individual, points out distinctly the relation of the calcaneal tube to the 

'^t posterior metatarsal must have had the same dimensions as that in the Dodo, and we may safely 
conjecture, that it possessed the characteristic form of that bone in the Columbida. The toes would, perhaps, 
be less robust, and more elongated than in the Dodo. 

118 OSTEOLOGY. [Part II. 

The metatarsus of the Solitaire differs from that of the Dodo, not only in the greater elongation and 
antero-posterior expansion of the central portion of the shaft, but also in the greater breadth and transverse 
flatness of the external border, or surface uncovered by muscle, which does not curve round the upper part 
of the tumid external metatarsal pillar, as in the Dodo, but encroaches on and flattens that element, so that 
this margin is concave vertically in the Solitaire; wliile in the Dodo, it is sUglitly convex in its 
upper moiety ; its anterior and posterior edges are acute, but the anterior in the Dodo is rounded off. 

The concavity beneath the proximal extremity is deeper, and its floor angular ; the outer wall formed by the 
central and external elements is only slightly concave ; but the inner pillar is more convex and tumid than 
in the Dodo. The rounded surface for the attaclmient of the Tibialis anticus is in contact with the internal 
inter-osseous foramen, and extends on both walls of the concavity, a deep groove bisecting it j the outer 
se'Tnent is slightly raised, the imier impressed. The groove for the tendon of the M. adductor 
annularis is shorter and less distinct ; and the tendon is transmitted tlirough a canal, formed posteriorly 
by an osseous band, connecting the adjacent posterior edges of the peduncles of the two external troclileae, 
a small oval foramen remaining above it for the transmission of vessels, and in front, as in aU birds, by the 
bridge connecting them anteriorly. The Une of demarcation between the surfaces for the M. M. extensor 
pollicis and adductor indicis, is imperceptible, and the iimer limit of that for the M. extensor medii meets 
the outer at the lower extremity of the median concavity. 

The inner border instead of being thin and ridge-like in its upper tliird, as in the Dodo, is replaced by 
a flat plane with a sliarp posterior edge, the anterior is rounded ofi' in young individuals ; this plane 
slopes very slightly outwards, and terminates below at a rough projection situated at the junction of the 
upper and middle thii'ds of the bone, corresponding to a minute one in the Dodo ; beneath which, the 
tumid inner part of the anterior aspect is broadly rounded off towards the internal surface. These surfaces 
are separated by a prolongation of the posterior margin of the replacing plane, which descends to the meta- 
tarsal facet, describing a curve convex posteriorly ; the anterior margin of the plane is prolonged down on 
the convexity of the anterior surface, at iii-st parallel to, and afterwards converging to the posterior, meeting 
it a little above the articular facet. The inner edge beneath this facet is less concave, being thinner than 
in the Dodo, and more extended inwards. The medullary foramina have the same relative position with 
regai-d to the shaft as in the Dodo. The fossa for the M.JJexor brevis jjollicis is narrower, from the replacement 
of the inner edge, and more elongated, extending to within an inch of the metatarsal articular facet. The 
edge of the calcaneal buttress is probably more convex. From the flattening of the outer border and the 
less projection of the calcaneal buttress, the surface for the Abductor indicis is much narrower than in the 
Dodo, and passes more directly into the groove lodging the tendon, which, however, is deeper and more 
distinctly defined than in the Dodo. The faint ridge which bounds tliis impression internally, and gives 
attachment to the inter-muscular ligament from wliich the Plexor brevis jjoUicis arises, subsides before 
reaching the articular facet. 

The gi-eater elongation and antero-posterior expansion of the central part of the shaft, and the breadth 
of the outer and inner borders are the most characteristic and essential differences between the metatarsus of 
the Sohtaire and that of the Dodo. In all other respects they agree very closely ; the dimensions, even, of 
the troclileaj and of the upper extremity, and the absolute height of the posterior metatarsal articular facet are 
alike in both. Those points in wldch the metatarsus of the Sohtaire differs from that in the Dodo, are, in 
some measui-e, repeated in Phaps, which has nearly the same relation to Geophaps that the Solitaire has to the 
Dodo, in the proportionate lengths of the metatarsi. The metatarsus examined exhibits marks of disease 
similar to those found in the bones of birds dying in menageries, the compact osseous tissue is opened out 
along the lower moiety of the outer border, and in a circular space one inch beneath the proximal extremity, 


so that the bone is more acted on by atmosplieric agencies at these places ; and a small piece of the 
lower node is removed (Plate XV. Fig. 2 a, 2U). The orifices of the minute periosteal Haversian canals 
are more distinct than usual, and give the surface a granular aspect. The parietes of the shaft in the 
immature specimen [ib. Fig. 4) are nearly one Hue thick ; the medullary canal is divided, as usual, into 
three compartments by two thin partitions, which diverge as they pass from the anterior to the pos- 
terior wall ; the cancellated tissue extends farther towards the middle of the shaft, in the narrow lateral, 
than in the wide central division. 

We have now ascertained that the cranium of the Solitaire resembles that of the Dodo in numerous 
important poiats, differing in such respects only, as would justify us in regarding these birds as specifically 
distinct. The metatarsus, also, is principally distinguished from that in the Dodo, by such variations in size 
and proportion as might occur in species of the same genus. But in a small family, the members of wliich are 
confined to distinct localities, we are warranted from analogy, in regarding each as forming the type of a 
genus. The marked dissimilarity in external form between the Dodo and Solitaire, and the position of the 
caruncular ridge in the latter, together with the shorter beak, fully justify the establishment of another genus 
{Pezophajjs) in the Bidina, to include this lost form. That the Dodo and SoHtaire belong to the same extinct 
sub-family of the Columbidte, characterized chiefly by the peculiar structure of the cranium and rudimentary 
condition of the wings, no one will, we trust, doubt, who has carefully and impartiallv examined the evi- 
dence ; the discovery of the osseous remains of the other extinct birds, supposed to beloncj to this group, 
•nill enable us more strictly to define its boundaries, and its aUiances with the other sub-families of the Order 
Columlce. We regard the Dodo, and its affine the SoHtaire, as terrestrial fliightless modifications of the Trero- 
nine sub-type, but having no immediate affinity with the other ground Pigeons, as Goura, Calcenas, &c., 
which are more directly allied to the ordinary Columhina. 

For the reception of that modification of the Treronine sub-type, represented by the B'uhincidus, we 
propose to establish the sub-family Gnathodontina, in the hope that other members of the group remain to be 
discovered in the Polynesian Islands. The Gnathodontime are connected to the TreronincB by the sub-genus 
Toria, which diti'ers from the typical Treron in the abbreviation of the mandibles, and in the pseudo- 
raptorial form of the upper gnathotheca. The Bidnncnlus is essentially a perching bird, but terrestrial 
affines probably exist, or have become extinct like the Dodo and Solitaire. The Pigeons form a perfectly isolated 
group of birds, ha\ang no direct affinity either with the Insessores or Gallince. The rasorial genus Pterocles 
approaches the Pigeons in the structure of the cranium, and in the form of the metatarsus ; but it is desti- 
tute of the peculiar columbine cere, and the liind toe, when present, is rudimentary and elevated. The 
Gallina, then, approach the Pigeons through Pterocles, but no fusion of these groups is thus effected. 
From other considerations, the Prince of Canino and Col. Sykes had, also, previously recognised the ap- 
proximation of Pterocles to the Columbida. The pecuhar cere, and the great development of the nasal scales, 
are characteristic of the Columhida, and probably have some relation to the mode in which the nestlings 
are nourished. A milky fluid, analogous to the lacteal secretion in Mammalia, is elaborated by the thick- 
ened mucous membrane of the crop of the parents, and pom'ed into its cavity, where it mixes with the mace- 
rating ingesta, and the young of certain species tlu-ust their beaks into the throat of the parent, to obtain 
the food thus provided. 

2 I 


Postscry^t to Part II. 

When this work was on the eve of publication, we received the Bulletin de la Classe phys. math, de 
I' Academie Imp. de St. Petersboiirg, vol. vii. No. 3, containing an abstract of a paper by Professor J. F. 
Brandt, entitled " Untersuchungen iiber die Verwandtschaften, die systematische Stellung, die geograpliische 
Verbreitung und die Vertilgung des Dodo, nebst Bemerkungcn iiber die eim Vaterlande des Dodo, oder auf 
den Nachbarinseln desselben friiher vorhandenen grossen Wadvogel." This memoir, which was read 
Dec.,17, 1847, contains the author's views of the affinities of the Dodo, wliich, it will be seen, differ con- 
siderably from our own. He states that after a diligent comparison of a cast of the Copenhagen Dodo-head 
with the osteological series in the Petersbui'g Museum, he had arrived at the following conclusions : — 

" 1. The Dodo, taken strictly, in regard either to the anatomy, or to the outer form of the head and foot, 
was not a Raptorial Bird, not even an anomalous one, although the last opinion has been adopted by several 
modern English and French naturalists of liigh reputation. 

" 2. The great difference in the form of its skull and beak from those of the Ostrich, equally forbids us 
to include it, as was formerly done, in that family of birds, although it approached them in its short wings, 
the texture of its plumage, its strong and (in general form) not very dissimilar feet, and the mode of scutu- 
lation of the tarsi. 

" 3. Neither can the Dodo be included among the Gallinaceous birds, on account of the very important 
differences of its cranial structure, and other discrepancies of outward form ; although the form of its tarsus 
and the organization of its toes come very near to those of many Gallinae. 

" 4. The Dodo agrees in the form of the majority of its cranial bones, and even in the shape of the 
beak, with the prevailing type of the Pigeons, as I had perceived, in common with my colleague v. Hamel, 
in the summer of 1846. Yet, considering the diti'erent form of the frontal, vertical, and occipital facets of 
its cranium, and the different shape and size of the lachi'ymal bone,^ the palate bone, upper mandible, and 
maxillary continuation of the nasal, as well as the diversity of the wings, toes, and plumage, 1 am unable to 
refer it to the Pigeons, either unmediately, or even as an aberrant form. 

" 5. The Dodo, a bird provided with divided toes and cursorial feet, is best classed in the order of 
Waders, among which it appears, from its many peculiaiities (most of wliich, however, are quite referable 
to forms in this order), to be an anomalous link connecting several groups, a Unk which, for the reasons 
above given, inclines towards the Ostriches, and especially also towards the Pigeons. 

" a. In regard to the cranial structm-e it approaches, among the Waders, most nearly to the Plovers, a 
group which also points, the most cleaily of aU Waders, to the type of the Pigeon's skull.^ It inclines, it is true, 

' Prefrontal of this Treatise. 

' "The typical and great similarity of the skull in t^ie Pigeons and Plovers is placed in juxtaposition in my 
treatise on the Dodo. One may accordingly regard the Plovers as Pigeon-forms, developed among the Waders, and 


in a few points, more directly to the Pigeons than the Plovers do, yet these points, taken strictly, are such 
as the Pigeons have in common, not, indeed, with the Ckamdni, but wholly with the Porphp-io, as well as 
with other groups of Waders. Moreover the Dodo, as already shown, differs from the Pigeons in the form 
of several of the cranial bones, — differences, nearly all of which exist also in the Ckaradrii, and occur as 
points of connection with different Wading birds. 

" b. The reniiu'kable form of the frontal region of the Dodo's skull indicates a combination of the 
frontal structure in Chauna, Grus pavonina, Chionis, and Scolopax ntsticola, since, in regard to outline, it 
resembles Chauna ; in the arching of its lower part, Chionis ; in its great amount of arcliing generally, it 
is Kke Gnis pavonina ; in the very broad superior extremities of the laclirymal bone, trending towards the 
forehead, it agrees with Scolopax rusticola. 

" c. The form of the crown and occiput of the Dodo reminds us of Forpliyrio, Grm pavonina, the 
GaUincB, &c., but not of the Pigeons. 

" d. The elevated upper mandible of the Dodo, in which it cUffers from the Charadrii and Pigeons, 
refers us to Ciconia, Tantalus, Ibis. 

" e. The broad maxillary continuation of the nasal bone in the Dodo, points to Ciconia and Porphyria. 

"f. The palatines of the Dodo, wliich do not slope outwards at the inner margin of their anterior 
extremity, are formed as in the Griiince, Scolopacince, and Charadriince, but not as in the Pigeons. 

" g. The bones of the feet and toes in the Dodo agree best with those ol Hamatopus, among the 
Wading Birds. 

" h. The naked forehead, cheeks, and gular region refer to Tantalus, Grus leucofferanus, and so to 
Ciconia, Mi/cteria, and many Gallinm, much more than to the Vultures, and not at all to the Pigeons. 

" i. The beak of the Dodo, in its general form, may be as correctly regarded to be a slightly modiiied 
colossal beak of a Charadrius, as of a Pigeon. On the other hand, it seems inadmissible to connect this bird 
with the Vulture, as it differs greatly therefrom in its short hooked extremity, only sUghtly emarginate at 
the lower edge. 

" k. The nostrils, placed far forwards, and resembling perpendicular fissures, show a resemblance with 
those of Chionis, in part also with those of many Pigeons, but hardly with those of many Vultures (nicht 
aber bios mit denen mancher Geier). 

" The Dodo may also be placed before the Dove-like Charadrii, as an anomalous form and a peculiar 
group of Waders, so that its affinity to Cranes, Storks, Woodcocks, Ibises, and Water-hens may be indi- 
cated ; as I have done in a special table, which exhibits the single famdies of the Pigeons, Galliuce, 
Ostriches, and Waders, arranged according to their relations of affinity. In the same table, also, the con- 
nections of the Dodo to the Ostriches and Pigeons are shown by dotted lines." 

In a note appended to this paper. Professor Brandt thus relates the progress of his researches : — 

" In order to establish more exactly my past, present, and future, whoUy independent, opinion, with 
reference to Messrs. Strickland's and Melville's researches on the Dodo, I beg to make the following obser- 
vations. Already in May, 1846, when Dr. Hamel had laid before the Academy a cast of the Copenhagen 
Dodo's head (Bull. Phys. Math. vol. v. p. 311), I invited him to join me in comparing the cast with the 
skuUs of other birds in the Museum of the Academy. It soon resulted that the Dodo was no Vulture, 
Ostrich, or GaUine, but rather a Pigeon-hke bird. I soon after briefly communicated this result to M. Lich- 
tenstein, and requested Mm to make it known to the BerKn Academy or the Natural History Society. It 

greatly allied in the structure of their beaks ; a relation which was unobserved by Strickland and Melville, inasmuch 
as they pronounced the Dodo to be actually a Pigeon." 


was only in the autumn of 1847, that I had an opportunity of following up the observations in question 
more accurately, but my continued researches arrived at the conclusion that the Dodo was better placed as 
a cursorial bii-d in the vicinity of the Plovers, which are very like the Pigeon in the form of their skulls ; 
especially as many others of its characters were also noticed in various wading birds. This result was 
already arrived at, and communicated to several friends (v. Baer, Kutorga, v. Middenderf, &c.) before 
I learnt Mr. Strickland's opinion." 

The preceding remarks on the affinities of the Dodo, by Professor Brandt, would scarcely require any 
comment, were it not for the distinguished reputation of the Author as a Zoologist. It will readily be 
granted, that with all the materials extant for the decision of tliis question, at our command, we have more 
ample means of instituting the requisite comparisons, than the learned Professor, who had only a rough 
cast of the imperfect head at Copenhagen. The superficial resemblances, in the contour of the skull, and 
in the covering of the upper mandible, between Pigeons and Plovers, have been long kno^vn to naturalists ; 
and were thus indicated by Swainson, in 1836 (Classification of Birds, vol. 2. p. 175), when speaking of 
the Plovers : — " Their heads are tliick, and their eyes large, dark, and placed far back in the head ; the bill 
is short, with the basal lialf soft, but the outer half becomes abruptly thick ; and is often obsoletely 
notched, so as closely to resemble that of the Pigeon family, which in the Rasorial circle, appears to 
represent the great order of Waders." We were weU acquainted with these superficial analogies; but, 
both from actual observation of the marked and essential differences in the structure of the cranium and 
foot in Pigeons, fi'om that of the corresponding parts in Plovers, and also from a more correct interpreta- 
tion of external characters, which, if rightly understood, are as valuable as those furnished by anatomical 
investigation, we were led to reject the hypothesis of any direct affinity existing between these families. 
Professor Brandt seems in tliis instance to have mistaken analogy for affinity, and in his anxiety to discover 
a link connecting dissevered groups, has wandered from the true method of investigation. The figures 
here given of the skull, and of the metatarsi, and the accurate representations of the integuments of 
the head and foot, will now enable our continental brethren to make the necessary comparisons, and to 
decide this interesting question for themselves ; and -it only remains to call their attention to the obser- 
vations on the family characters of the skull in Pigeons, p. 97, su^ra. 


Literal Translations of the Latin, French, Butch, and German passages relating to the Dodo, in Part I., Ch. I, 

1. Page 9. "Insula dicta praeterquam," &c. 

This island, besides being very fertile in terrestrial products, feeds vast numbers of bu-ds, such as Turtle-doves, 
which occur in such plenty, that three of our men sometimes captured 150 in half a day, and might easily have 
taken more by hand, or kUled them with sticks, if we had not been overloaded with the burden of them. Grey 
Parrots are also common there, and other birds, besides a large kind, bigger than our swans, with large heads, half 
of which is covered with skin like a hood. These birds want wings, in place of which are three or four blackish 
feathers. The tail consists of a few slender, curved feathers, of a grey colour. We called them Walckvogel, for 
this reason, that the longer they were boiled, the tougher and more uneatable they became. Their stomachs, 
however, and breasts were well tasted and easy to masticate. Another reason for the name was that we had an 
abundance of Tm-tle-doves, of a much sweeter and more agreeable flavour. 

2. Page 9. " Declaration de ce qu'avons veu," &c. 

Fig. 1. Are Tortoises which frequent the land, deprived of paddles for swimming, of such size that they load a 
man ; they crawl very stiffly, and catch crawfish a foot in length, which they eat. 

Fig. 3. Is a bii'd, called by us Walckvogel, the size of a Swan. The rump is round, covered with two or three 
curled feathers ; they have no wings, but in place of them three or four black feathers. We took a number of these 
birds, together with Turtle-doves and other birds, which were captured by our companions when they first visited 
the country, in quest of a deep and potable river where the ships could lie in safety. They returned in great joy, 
distributing their game to each ship, and we sailed the next day for this harbour, supplying each ship with a pUot 
from among those who had been there before. We cooked this bird, which was so tough that we could not boil it 
sufficiently, but eat it half raw. As soon as we reached the harbour, the Admiral sent us with several men into the 
country to seek for inhabitants, but we foimd none, only Tiu-tle-doves and other birds in great abundance, which 
we took and IdUed, for as there was no one to scare them, they had no fear of us, but kept their places and allowed 
us to kill them. In short, it is a country abounding in fish and birds, insomuch that it exceeded aU the others 
visited during the voyage. 

Fig. 3. A Date-tree, the leaves of which are so large that a man may shelter himself from the rain under one 
of them, and when one bores a hole in them and puts in a pipe, there issues wine like dry wine, of a mild and sweet 
flavom- : but when one keeps it three or four days, it becomes soui". It is called Palm-wine. 

Fig. 4. Is a bird which we called Rahos Forcados, on account of their tails which are shaped like sheers. 
They are very tame, and when their wings are stretched they are nearly a fathom in length. The beak is long, 
and the birds are nearly black, with white breasts. They catch and eat flying-fish, also the intestines of fish and 
birds, as we proved with those which we captured, for when we were dressing them, and threw away the entrails, 
they seized and devom'ed the entrails and bowels of their comrades. They were very tough when cooked. 

Fig. 5. Is a bird which we called Indian Crow, more than twice as big as the Parroquets, of two or three 



Pig. 6. Is a wild tree, on which we pLieed (as a memorial in case that ships should arrive) a tablet adorned 
with the arms of Holland, Zealand, and Amsterdam, so that others arriving here, might see that the Dutch had 
been there. 

Fig. 7. This is a Palm-tree. Many of these trees were felled by qui- companions, and they cut out the bud 
marked A, a good cure for pains in the limbs. It is two or three feet long, white within, and sweet ; some ate as 
many as seven or eight of them. 

Fig. 8. Is a Bat, with a liead like a Marmot. They fly here in great numbers, and hang in flocks to the trees ; 
they sometimes fight and bite each other. 

Fig. 9. Here the smith set up a forge, and vn-ought his ii-on ; he also repaired some of the iron-work of 
the ships. 

Fig. 10. Ai'e huts which we built there of trees and leaves, for those who aided the smith and cooper at their 
work ; so that we might start at the first opportunity. 

Fig. 11. Here our chaplain, Phdippe Pierre Delphois, a sincere and plain-spoken man, preached a very severe 
sermon, without sparing any one, twice diu'iag our stay in the island. One half of the crew attended it before 
dinner, and the other after. Here was Laurent (a Madagascar man) baptized, along with one or two of our 
own men. 

Fig. 12. Here we applied om'selves to fishing, and took an incredible quantity, to wit, two barrels and a half 
at one haul, all of difl'erent colours. 

3. Page 11. " Eodem quoquc loco," &c. 

In the same island are found many birds twice the size of Swans. The men named them WalcMoclcen or 
WalckuegeU, the flesh of which was not ill adapted for food. But as the same place furnished an abundance of 
Pigeons and Parrots, which were fat and well flavoured, our crew, neglecting the larger birds, preferred the more 
delicate and tender kinds, by feeding on which they solaced themselves in their troubles. 

4. Page 12. " Cap. IV. GalUnaceim Galliis peregriuus" kc. 

A foreign kind of Cock. — Of those eight ships which sailed from Holland in April, 1598, five came in sight 
of a mountainous island for which they gladly steered. While staying in the island, they noticed various kinds of 
birds, and among them a very strange one, of which I saw a figure rudely dra^vn in a Journal of that voyage which 
they published after theii" return, and from which the figm-c at the head of this chapter is copied. 

This foreign bii-d was as large or larger than a Swan, but veiy difl'erent in form : for its head was large, covered 
as though with a membrane resembling a hood ; the beak too was not flat, but thick and oblong, of a yellowish 
colour next the head, with the extremity black, the upper mandible hooked and curved, and in the lower was a 
bluish spot between the yellow and the black. They said that it was covered with few and short feathers, and had 
no wings, but, in place of them, four or five longish black quills. The hind part of the body was very fat and thick, 
and in place of a tail were four or five crisp curled feathers of a grey colour. Its legs were thick rather than long, 
the upper part as far as the knee covered with black feathers, the lower part and the feet yellowish ; the feet were 
divided into four toes, the three longer ones directed forwEirds, and the fourth, which was shorter, turned backwards, 
and all of them furnished with black claws. The sailors called this bird in their own tongue, TFalgh-vof/el, that is, 
disgusting bird, partly because after a long boiling its flesh did not become more tender, but remained hard and 
indigestible, (except the breast and stomach which they found of no despicable flavour,) partly because they could 
get plenty of Tm-tle-doves which they found more delicate and savotu-y : it is therefore no wonder that they despised 
this bird and said that they could readily dispense with it. They said further that in its stomach certain stones 
were found, two of which I saw in the house of that accomplished man, Christian Porretus ; they were of difl'erent 
forms, one fall and rounded, the other uneven and angular, the former an inch in length, which I have figured at 
the feet of the bird, the latter larger and heavier, and both of a greyish colour. It is probable that they w-ere 
picked up by the bird on the sea-shore and then devoured ; and not formed in its stomach. 


5. Page 13. " Op het laut onthouden," &c. 

In this country occur Tortoises, TFalUchvogeU, Flamingos, Geese, Ducks, Field-hens, large and small Indian 
Crows, Doves, some of which have red tails (by eating which many of the crew were made sick), grey and green 
Parrots with long tails, some of which were there caught. 

6. Page 16. " Verumenimverb, concinnata," &c. 

After I had wi-itten down the history of this bird as well as I could, I happened to see in the house of 
Peter Pawius, Professor of Medicine ia the University of Leyden, a leg cut off at the knee, and recently brought 
from Mauritius. It was not very long, but rather exceeded foui- inches fi-om the knee to the bend of the foot ; 
its thickness, however, was great, being nearly four inches in circumference, and it was covered with numerous 
scales, which in front were wider and yellow, but smaller and dusky behind. The upper part of the toes was also 
furnished with single broad scales, while the lower part was wholly caDous. The toes were rather short for' so 
thick a leg ; for the length of the largest or middle one was not much over two inches, while that of the next to it 
was barely two inches, of the hind one an inch and a half. The claws of all were tliick, hard, black, less than an 
inch long, but the claw of the hind toe was longer than the rest, and exceeded an inch. 

7. Page 17. "On y trouve encore," &c. 

" Men vinter ooc sekeren," &c. 
They find there certain birds which some name Dodaersen, and others Bronten. Those who first arrived here 
called them Walgh-vorjMn, because they were able to procui-e plenty of others which were better. They are as 
large as a Swan, with small grey feathers, without wings or tail, hai-ing on their sides only small winglets, and 
beliiud fom- or five feathers more prominent than the rest. They have large thick feet, with a large clumsy beak 
and eyes, and have commonly in the stomach a stone as large as the fist. They are tolerable eating, but the 
stomach is the best part. 

8. Page 17. " Pendant tout le temps," &c. 

" Alle den tijt dat liier lagen," &c. 
AH the while they were here, they lived on Tortoises, Dodos, Pigeons, Tui-tle-doves, grey Parrots and other 
game, which they caught by hand in the woods. The flesh of the Land Tortoises was very weU tasted. They 
salted and smoked it, and found it very serviceable, as were the Dodos which they salted. 

9. Page 18. "Es hat auch daselbst," &c. 

There are also many Birds, as Turtle-doves, grey Parrots, 'Rabos forcados, Pield-hens, Partridges, and other 
birds in size like Swans, with large heads. They have a skin like a monk's cowl on the head, and no wings, but 
in place of them about 5 or 6 yellow feathers ; bkewise in place of a taU are 4 or 5 curled feathers. In colour 
they are grey ; men call them Totersten or TTalckvogel ; they occm' there in great plenty, insomuch that the Dutch 
daily caught and eat many of them. For not only these, but in general all the bh-ds there are so tame that they 
killed the Turtle-doves as well as the other wild Pigeons and Parrots with sticks, and caught them by hand. 
They also captured the Totersten or Walckwgel with their hands, but were obliged to take good care that these 
birds did not bite them on the arms or legs with their beaks, which are very strong, thick and hooked ; for they 
are wont to bite desperately hard. 

10. Page 32. " J'ay veu dans I'isle Maurice," &c. 

I have seen in Mauritius birds bigger than a Swan,' without feathers on the body, which is covered with a 
black down ; the hinder part is round, the rump adorned with curled feathers as many in number as the bird is 
years old. In place of wings they have feathers like these last, black and curved, without webs. They have no 

1 The figure of this bird is iu the second navigation of the Dutch to the East Indies, in the 29th day of the year 1598. They tall it 
" bird of disgust." 


tontnies, the beak is large, cm-ving a little downwards ; tlieir legs are long, scaly, with only three toes on each foot. 
It has a cry like a o-osUng, and is by no means so savoury to eat as the Flamingos and Ducks of which we have just 
spoken. They only lay one egg which is white, the size of a hal^enny roll, by the side of which they place a white 
stone the size of a hen's egg. They lay on grass which they collect, and make their nests in the forests ; if one 
knUs the youn"' one, a grey stone is found in the gizzard. We call them Oiseaux de Nazaret.^ The fat is excellent 
to give ease to the muscles and nerves. 

II. Page 24. "De Dronte aliis Dodaers," &c. 

Of the Dronte or Dodaers. Among the islands of the East Indies is reckoned that which by some is called 
Cerue, and by our countrymen, Mauritius, most famous for its black ebony. In this island a bird of wonderful 
form, called Dronte, abounds. In size it is between an Ostrich and a Turkey, from which it partly differs in form 
anA partly agrees, especially with the African Ostrich, if you regard the rump, the quills, and the plumage ; so that 
it seems like a pygmy among them in respect of the shortness of its legs. The head is large, clumsy, covered with 
a membrane like a hood. The eyes are large and black ; the neck cm-ved, prominent, and fat ; the beak remarkably 
long and strong, of a bluish white, except the ends, of which the lower is black, the upper yellowish, and both 
pointed and hooked. The gape is hideous, enormously wide, as though formed for gluttony. The body is fat, 
round, and clothed with gi-ey feathers in the manner of Ostriches. On each side, in place of quills, it is furnished 
\vith small feathered wings, of a yellowish grey, and behind the rump, in place of tail, with five curved plumes of 
the same colour. Tlie legs are yellow, thick, but very short ; the toes are four, stout, long, scaly, and the claws 
strong and black. The bird is slow and stupid, easUy taken by the hunters. Their flesh, especially that of the 
breast, is fat, eatable, and so abundant that three or four Brontes have sometimes sufficed to feed a hundred 
seamen. If not well boiled, or old, they are more difficult of digestion, and when salted, are stored among the 
ship's provisions. 

Pebbles of various foijn and size, of a grey colour, are found in the stomach of these birds, not however formed 
there, as the vulgar and the saUors believe, but swallowed on the sea shore ; as though by this proof also it 
appeared that these birds agree with the nature of the Ostrich, since they swallow all kinds of hard substances 
without digesting them. 

11. Page 25. "Num. 5 ist ein kopif," &c. 

No. 5 is the head of a foreign Bird which Clusius names Gallm peregrinus, Nierenberg Cygnus cucullatus, and 
the Dutch TFalglmogel, from the disgust which they are said to have taken to its hard flesh. The Dutch seem to 
have first discovered this bii'd in the island of Mauritius ; and it is stated to have no wings, but in place of them 
two winglets, like the Emeu and the Penguins. 

1 Perhaps this name has been given them from having been found in the isle of Nazareth, which is higher up than that of Mauritius, 
in 17° S. 



Works wJiich I have personally consulted are marked * (H. E. S.) 


*1598. (WalclcvSgel) — Neck (Jacob Cornelius van). Le second Livre, Journal ou Comptoir contenant le vray 
Discours et Narration historiijue du voyage faict par les huict Na vires d' Amsterdam au mois de Mars 

I'An 1598. fol. Amsterdam, 1601 ; 2nd ed. 1609. (Dutch) Waeraclitigli Verhael van de Schip-vaert 

op Oost-Indien ghedaen by de acht Schepen, onder den Heer Admirael Jacob van Neck en de Vice-Ad- 
miral Wybrani van Wanoijck van Amsterdam gezeylt in den jare 1598. 4to. Amsterdam, 1601 ; 1648, 

p. 6; another ed. 4to. Amst. 1650, p. 6. (German) by i. Hulsins, Niii-nberg, 1602; Franckfort, 

1605. (Latin) De Bry, Indiae Orientalis partes IV, V. fol. Franckfort, 1601. (English) London, 

1601. — Prevosi, Histoire generale des Voyages, 4to. Rouen, 1735 ; vol. 8. p. 123. — Clusius, Exotica, 
lib. V. ch. 4. p. 99. 

*1602. (WalUclwogeh) — Heemskerk (Jacob van). Journal of Beyer Cornelisz in " Begin ende Voortgangh van de 
Vereenighde Nederlantsche Geoctroyeerde Oostindische Compagnie." 4to. 1646. s. 1. vol. 1. 

*1602. (Bo'daarsen or Dronten) — West-Zanen (WUlem van). Derde voornaemstc Zee-getogt (der verbondene 
vrye Nederlanderen) na de Oost-Indien, gedaan met de Achinsche en Moluksche Vloten, onder de Am- 
miralen Jacob Heemskerk en Wolfert Harmansz. In den Jare 1601, 1602, 1603. Getrocken Uyt de 
naarstige aanteekeningen van Wdlem van West-Zanen, Schipper op de Bniin-Vis, en met eenige noodige 
byvoegselen vermeerdert, door H. Soete-Boom. 4to. Amsterdam, 1648, p. 21. 

*1605. {GalUnaceus Gallits peregrinus) — Clusius (C.) Exoticorum libri decern, fol. Raphelengii, 1605 ; lib. v. 
ch. 4, p. 100. 

*1606. i^Dodaersen or Dronte^i) — Matelief (Cornelius). Voyage in "Begin ende Voortgangh van de Vereen. 

Nederl. Geoctr. Oostind. Compagnie," v. 2. p. 5. (French) Eecueil des Voiages qui ont servi a 

I'etabli'ssement et au progres de la Compagnie des Indes Orientales, formee dans les Provinces Unies des 
Pais-bas. 5 vols. 12mo. Amsterdam, 1702-1706; v. 3. p. 214. 

*1607. (Dodaersen) — Hagen (Stephen van der). Voyage in the " Tweede Deel van het Begin ende Voortgangh der 

Vereen. Nederl. Geoctr. Oostind. Compagnie." p. 88. (French) Becueil des Voiages de la Comp. des 

Indes Or. v. 3. p. 195, 199. — Prevost, Hist. gen. des Voyages, v. 5. p. 246 — Van SoldCs Voyage. 

*1611. (Totersten) — Verhuffen (P. W.) EyliTter Schiflart, ander Theil, oder km-zer Verfolg und Continuirung 
der Eeyse so von den HoU- und Seelandern in die Ost Indien mit neun grossen und vier kleinen Schiffen 
vom 1607 biss in dass 1612 Jahr verrichtet worden. i. Hulsius. 4to. Franckfort, 1613. 

*1617. ( ) Beoecke (Pieter van den). XXV jaarige Eeyse-Beschi-yving naer Africa en Oost-Indien. 

2 L 


8vo. Le warden, 1771. "Begin ende Voortgangh der Vereen. Nederl. Geoctr. Oostind. Compagnie." 

vol. 2. no. xvi. p. 102. plate 7. — Theoenot, Eolations de divers Voyages curieux. vol. 1, Voyage de Bontekoe, 

pi. p. 5. 
*1627. {Dodo) — Heebekt (Sir Thomas). Eelation of some yeai-es' Travaile, begimne Anno 1626, into Afrique 

and the Greater Asia, especially the territories of the Persian Mouarcliie, and some parts of the Orientall 

Indies and lies adiacent. fol. London, 1634, p. 21]. — (2nd edition.) Some ycares' Travels into divers 

parts of Asia and Afrique, describing especially the two famous empires, the Persian and Great Mogul!. 

Eevised and enlarged by the Author, fol. London, 1638, p. 347. — (3rd edition.) Some years Travels 

into divers parts of Africa and Asia the Great, fol. London, 1677, p. 382. 
*1635. {Cycjimi cucullatui) — Nieremberg (J. D.) Historia Naturae, maxime peregrinae, libris xvi. distincta. fol. 

Antwerpiaj, 1635, p. 231. 
*1638. {Oueaux de Nazaret) — Cauche (Francois). Eelation du Voyage de -F. Cmwhe,m " Eelatious veritables 

et curieuses de I'lsle de Madagascar." 4to. Paris, 1651. 
*1638. {Dodo) — L'esteange (Sir Hamon). Notes on Brown's Vulgar Errors, British Museum MSS. Sloane, 

1839. h.—WUkms edition of Brotens Works, v. 1. p. 369 ; v. 2. p. 173. 
*1656. (Dodar) — Tradescant (John). Museum Tradescantianum, or a Collection of Earities preserved at South 

Lambeth, near London. 12mo. 1656, p. 4. 
*1657. {Cygnus amillatm) — Johnston (Johannes). Historise naturalis de Avibus libri vi. fol. Amstelodami, 1657, 

p. 122. pi. 56. 
*1658. {Bronte or Bodaers) — Piso (Gulielmus). Additions to " Jacobi Bontii Historife natm-alis et medicae Indiae 

Orientalis libri sex," in " Chdielmi Pmnis Medici AmstelBedamensis de Indiae utriusque re naturali et 

medicil bbri quatuordechn." fol. Amstelaedami, 1658 ; lib. v. ch. 17. p. 70. 
*1663. (Bronte o^ Bodaers) — Thevenot (Melchizedec). Eelatious de divers Voyages curieux qui n'ont point este 

publiees. 2 vols. fol. Paris, 1663. — Nouvelle edition, 2 vols. fol. Paris, 1696. Voy. de Bontekoe. 

pi. pp. 1, 5. 
*1665. {Bodo) — Hubert alias Fobges (Eobert). A Catalogue of part of those Earities collected in thirty yeai-s 

time with a gi-eat deal of Pains and Industry, by one of his Majestie's sworn Servants, E. H. alias Forges, 

Gentleman. 13mo. London, n. d. — (2nd ed.) A catalogue of many natural rarities with great industry, 

cost and thii'ty years travel in foraign coimtries collected by Eobert Hubert abas Forges, Gent., and sworn 

servant to his Majesty. And daily to be seen at the place formerly called the Music House near the west 

end of St. Paul's Church. 12mo. London, 1665, p. 11. 
*1666. {Gallus peregrinus) — Olearius (Adam). Die Gottorfische Kunstkammer. 4to. Schleswig, 1666; 1674, 

pi. 13. f. 5. 
*1668. {Bodo) — Charleton (Gualterus). Onomasticon Zoicon, plerorumque Animalium differentias et nomina 

propria plui'ibus bnguis exponens. 4to. London, 1668, p. 113.' 
*1676. {Cygnus cucullatus) — Wtlldghby (Franciscus). Ornithologia; Libri tres, in quibus Aves omnes hactenus 

cognitae in methodum natmis suis convenientem describuntvu'. fol. London, 1676, p. 107. pi. 27. — 

Translated into English and enlarged by John Bay. fol. Loudon, 1678, p. 153. pi. 27. 
*1677. {Bodo) — Charleton (Gualtems). Exercitationes de diiferentiis et nominibus Animalium. fol. Oxford, 

1677, p. 117. 
*1681. (Bodo) — Harry (Benj.) A coppey of Mr. Bei/j. Harrys Joiu-nall when he was cheif mate of the Sliippe 

Berkley Castle, Capt. Wm. Talbot then commander, on a voyage to the Coste and Bay, 1679, which 

voyage they wintered at the Mam-risshes. Brit. Mus. Addit. MSS. 3668. 11. D. 
*1681. {Bodo) — Grew (Nehemiah). Musaeum EegaUs Societatis ; or a Catalogue and description of the natural 

and artificial Earities belonging to the Eoyal Society, fol. London, 1681, p. 60. 
*1684. {Galltts gallinaceus peregrimis) — Llhvtyd (Edward). Catalogus Animalium quae in Museo Ashmoleano 
conservantur. MS. in Aslunolean Museum. Lib. Dni. Principalis Coll. iEnei Nasi, No. 29. 


1688. ( ) — Lacroix ( ).. Kelatioii des lies d'Afriqiie. 

*1700. (Dodo) — Hyde (Thomas). Historia Eeligionis veterum Persarum eorumque Magorum. 4to. Oxon. 1700 

p. 312. pi. 7. 
*1704. {Bronte) — Nieuhoff (John). Voyages and Travels to the E. Indies in Churchill's Collection of Voyages 

and Ti-avels. 4 vols. fol. London, 1704 ; v. 2. p. 354. 
*1713. (Ci/ffHus cucullatus) — Ray (John). Synopsis methodica Avium et Piscium ; opus posthumum. 12mo. 

London, 1713, p. 37. 
*1753. (Raphus)—McEBKmG (P. H. G.) Avium Genera. 12mo. Bremse, 1752, p. 58. 
*1757. {Bodo) — Edwards (George). Gleanings of Natural History, exhibiting figures of Quadrupeds, Birds, 

Fishes, Insects, &c. 3 vols. 4to. London, 1755-1764, pi. 294. 
*1758. (Siruthio cucullatus) — Linn^ds (Carolus). Systema Naturae per Regna tria Naturse, editio decima. 

2 vols. 8vo. Holmiae, 1758; vol. 1. p. 155. 
*1760. (Raphus) — Brisson (M. J.) Ornithologia, sive Synopsis methodica sistens Avium divisionem in 

Ordines, Sectiones, Genera, Sisecies, ipsarumque Varietates. 6 vols. 4to. Paris, 1760 ; vol. 5. p 15. 
*1767. (Cynge etranger) — Saleene ( ). L'Histoire NatureUe eclaircie dans une de ses parties principales, 

I'Oi-nithologie. fol. Paris, 1767, p. 80. 
*1767. (Bidim ineptm) — LiNNi:us (Carolus). Systema Naturae per regna tria Naturae, secundum classes, ordines, 

genera, species, cum characteribus, difierentiis, synonymis, locis. ed. 12. 3 vols. 8vo. Holmiae, 1767 ; 

voL 1. p. 267. 
*1770. (Bronte and Oiseau de Nazare) — BnrroN (G. L. Le Clerc de). Histoire naturelle des Oiseaux. 9 vols. 4to. 

Paris, 1770-1783; vol. 1. pp. 480, 485.— Ed. 2. 10 vols. fol. Paris, 1771-1786; vol. 2. pp. 73, 77. 

— Nouvelle edition par C. S. Sonnini, 28 vols. 8vo. Paris, 1801-1805 ; vol 4. pp. 336, 343. pi. 33. f. 1. 
1773. (i)o(fo)— Seijgmann,(J. M.) Sammlung seltener Vogel. 8 vols. fol. Niii-nb. 1749-1773 ; v. 8. pi. 84. 

{Bronte) — Bomare (J\ C. V. de). Dictiounaire raisonne universel d'Histoii-e Naturelle. 5 vols. 8vo. 

Paris, 1765-1768. 
1773. (roTpe?)— MuLLER (P. L. S.) Vollstimdiges Natm-system. 6 vols. 8vo. Numberg, 1773-76 ; vol. 2. 

*1778. (Bronte) — Morel ( ). Sm- les Oiseaux monstrueux nommes Dronte, Dodo, Cygne capuehonne. 

Solitaire, et Oiseau de Nazare, et sur la petite Isle de Sable a 50 lieues environ de Madagascar, in " Obser- 
vations sur la Physique." vol. 12. p. 154. 

1779. (Bidus ineptus) — Blbmenbach (J. F.) Handbuch der Naturgeschichte. 8vo. Gottingeu, 1779. 

(French) Manuel d'Histoire naturelle, trad. par. S. Artaud. 2 vols. 8vo. Metz, 1803 ; vol. 1. p. 256. 
pi. . (English) tr. by R. T. Gore. 8vo. London, 1825, p. 119. 

*1781. (Bronte, Tolpel, Nazarvogel) — BoROVfSKi (G. H.) Gemeinniitzige Naturgeschichte des Thien-eichs. 2 vols. 
8vo. Berlin u. Stralsund. 1781, 1782 ; vol. 1. pp. 161, 162. pi. 25. 

•1783. (Bidus ineptus) — Hermann (J.) Tabula afiSnitatum Animalium. 4to. Argentorati, 1783, pp. 132, 163. 
1784. (Bronte) — Leske (N. G.) Anfangsgriinde der Natm-geschiehte, ed. 2. 8vo. Leipzig, 1784. 

*1785. (Hooded Bodo and Nazarene Bodo.) — Latham (John). A General Synopsis of Birds. 3 vols. 4to. London, 
1781-1785; vol. 3. pp. 1, 4. pi. 70.— Sup. 2. p. 286. 

*1788. (Bidus ineptus and B. Nazaremis) — Gmelin (J. F.) Caroli a Linne' Systema Naturae, editio decima tertia, 
aucta, reformata. 3 vols. 8vo. Lipsis, 1778-1793 ; vol. 1. p. 728. 

*1788. (Bronte and Oiseau de Nazare) — Ray (P.A.F.) Zoologie universelle et portative. 4to.Paris,1788,pp.l88,386. 

1788. (Bro7ite)—BAiscB (A. J. G. K.) Versuch einer Anleitung zur Kenntniss und Geschichte der Thiere und 

Miueralien, fiir akademische Vorlesnngen entworfen. 2 vols. 8vo. Jena, 1788-89. 

1789. (Tolpel) — Bechstein (J. M.) Gemeinnutzige Naturgeschichte Deutschlands. 4 vols. Svo. Leipzig, 


1790. (Bronte)— YvnKy:. (C. v.) Naturgeschichte und Technologic. Svo. Braunschweig, 1790. 
(Bronte, Ebelvogel, Monchschwan) — Gatteber (C. W. J.). Vom Nutz u. Seh. d. Th. 


1790. ( ) — Blcmenbach (J. P.) Beytriige zur Naturgeschichte. 2 vols. 8vo. Gottingen, 

1790; vol. 1. p. 24. 
*1790. (Didus ineptus and D. nazarmus) — Bonnateere (L' Abbe). Tableau encyclopedique et methodique des trois 

regnes de la Nature. Ornithologie. 3 vols. 4to. Paris, 1790—1823 ; vol. 1. pp. 166, 167. 
*1790. (Bidits ineptus, and D. nazarenus) — Latham (Jolm). Index Omithologicus sive Systema Ornithologiae. 

2 vols. 4to. London, 1790, pp. 662, 663. 

1792. (Tdlpel) — Bechstein (J. M.) Kurzgefasste Naturgescliiclite des In- u. Auslandes. 2 vols, Svo. Leipzig, 

1792-94; v.l. p. 456. 
*] 792. {Dldiis ineptus) — Shaw (George). Natui-alist's Miscellany, or coloured figures of Natural Objects drawn 
and described immediately from Nature. 34 vols. Svo. London, 1790-1813 ; vol. 4. pi. 123, 143 ; vol. 5. 
pi. 166. 

1793. (Dronte) — Donndoeff (J. A.) Handbucli der Thiergeschichte. Svo. Leipzig, 1793. 

*1795. {Bidns ineptus) — Donndorff (J. A.) Omithologische Beytrage zur xiii. Ausgabe des Linneischen Natur- 

systems. 2 vols. Svo. Leipzig, 1795 ; vol. 3. p. 19. 
*1795. (Gemeine Diidu and Nazarene Diidu) — Bechstein (J. M.) Joliann Latltams allgemeine Uebersicht der 

Vogel. 4 vols. 4to. Niii-nberg, 1792-1812 ; vol. 2. pp. 764, 766. pi. 71. 
1796. ( ) — Blumenbach (J. P.) Abbddungen der Natui-historische Gegenstande. Gottingen, 

1796-1810, pi. 35. 
*1798. {Dronte) — Cuvier (George). Tableau elementaii-e de I'Histoire NatureUe des Animaux. 1 vol. Svo. Paris, 

An. vi., p. 251. 
*1S01. {Didus ineptus) — Stewart (C.) Elements of Natural History. 2 vols. Svo. Edinburgh, 1801 ; vol. 1. 

p. 233. — Second edition. 2 vols. Svo. Edinburgh, 1817; vol. 1. p. 219. 
*18l)l. (Dodo) — Grant (Charles). The History of Mauritius, or the Isle of France, and the neighbouring Islands 

from their first discovery to the present time. 4to. London, 1801, p. 144.* 
*1804. (Dodo) — BoRY St. Vincent (J. B. G. M.) Voyage dans les quatre principales lies des Mers d'Afrique. 

3 vols. Svo. Paris, 1804, vol. 2. p. 303. 

*1806. (Dronte) — Dumeril (Constant). Zoologie analytique ou methode naturelle de classifiqation des Animaux. 

Svo. Paris, 1806, p. 56. 
*1808. (Didus ineptus and D. nazarenus) — Rees (Abraham). Article Didus in " The New Cyclopsedia or Universal 

Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and Literature." Vol. 10. pt. 2. 
1809. (Dodo) — Shaw (George). Zoological Lectures delivered at the Eoyal Institution. 3 vols. Svo. London, 

1809 ; vol. 1. p. 213. pi. 69. 
*1811. (Didus ineptus) — Illiger (Carolus). Prodromus Systematis Mammalium ct Avium, additis terminis 

zoographicis utriusque classis eorumque versione germanica. Svo. Berolini. 1811, p. 245. 
*1S17. (Dronte) — Cuvier (George). Le Eegue Ammal distribue d'apres son organization. 4 vols. Svo. Paris, 

1817 ; vol. 1. p. 463.— Nouvelle edition. 5 vols. Svo. Paris, 1829 ; vol. 1. p. 497. 
*1S17. (Dronte smA Olseau de Nazare) — Sonnini (C. W. S.) Nouveau Dictionnaire d'Histoire NatureUe. Nouvelle 

edition. 36 vols. Svo. Pai-is, 1816—1819 ; v. 9. p. 589; v. 23. p. 431. 
*1819. (Dronte) — Dumont (C.) Article Deonte in "Dictionnaire des Sciences natureUes." Svo. Paris; 

vol. 13. p. 519. 
*1820. (Didus ineptus) — Temminck (C. J.) Manuel d' Ornithologie, ou Tableau systematique des Oiseaux qui 

se trouvent en Europe ; precede d'une Analyse du Systeme general d' Ornithologie. 2nde edition, 4 vols. 

Svo. Paris, 1820-1840 ; pt. 1. p. cxiv. 
*1823. (Hooded Dodo and Nazarene Dodo) — Latham (John). A general history of Birds. 10 vols. 4to. Win- 
chester, 1821-1824 ; vol. 8. pp. 372, 375. pi. 135. 
*1833. (Didus) — Vigors (N. A.) Observations on the Natural Affinities that connect the Orders and Families of 

Bu-ds; in the "Transactions of the Linnean Society of London." vol. 14. p. 484. 


*1825. (Oiseau de Nasare) — Dumont (C.) Article Oisead de NAZAREin " Dictionnaire des Sciences naturelles." 

vol. 35. p. 494. 
*1826. {Bidus ineptus) — Stephens (J. F.) General Zoology, or systematic Natural History, by George Sliaw. 

continued by /. F. Stephens. 14 vols. 8vo. London, 1800-1826 ; vol. 14. p. 308. pi. 40. 
*1827. {Didns ineptui) — Gray (John Edward). On tlie Dodo ; in the " Zoological Journal." v. 3. p. 605. 
*1828. {Didiis hieptua) — Duncan (John Shute). A summary review of the authorities ou which naturalists are 

justiiied in believing that the Dodo, Bidns ineptus, Linn., was a bird existing in the Isle of France, or 

neighbouring islands, untO a recent period ; in the " Zoological Journal." v. 3. p. 554. - r - 
*1828. {Bidm ineptus) — Esteup (P. J.) Haandbog i Ornithologien eUer Naturhistorie of de maerkveerdigste 

Fugle. 8vo. Kiobenhavn, 1828 ; p. 173. 
*1828. (Bidus ineptus) — Staek (John). Elements of Natural History. 2 vols. 8vo. Edinburgh, 1828 ; vol. 1. 

p. 330. 
*1828. (Bronte) — Lesson (R. P.) Manuel d'Ornithologie ou description des gem-es et des priucipales especes 

d'oiseaux. 2 vols. 12mo. Paris, 1828 ; vol 2. p. 210. 
*1829. (Bodo) — Griffith (Edward). The Animal Kingdom arranged in conformity with its organization, by 

Baron Cuvier ; with additional descriptions by E. Griffith. 16 vols. 8vo. London, 1827-1835; vol. 8. 

pp. 299, 443. 
*1829. (Bodo) — Thompson (J. V.) Contributions towards the Natural History of the Dodo (Bidus ineptus), a bird 

which appears to have become extinct towards the end of the 17th or beginning of the 18th century ; in 

Loudon's " Magazine of Natural History." vol. 2. p. 443. 
*1830. (Bodo) — Blainville (H. D. de). Memoire sur le Dodo, autrement Dronte, in " Nouvelles Annales du 

Museum d'Histoire Naturelle." vol. 4. p. 1. pi. 1-4. 
*1831. (Bidus ineptus) — Eichwald (Edward). Zoologia specialis. 3 vols. 8vo. Vilnfs, 1831 ; vol. 3. p. 257. 
*1832. (Bidus) — BoiE (F.) Art. Didus in Ersch and Gruber's "AUgemeine Encydopadie der Wissenschaffceu u. 

Kunste." 4to. Leipzig ; vol. 24. p. 545. 
*1833. (Z»oc?o)— Ltell (Charles). Principles of Geology. 2nd ed. 3 vols. 8vo. London, 1833; v. 2, p. 157. 

—3rd ed. 4 vols. 12mo. London, 1834; v. 3. p. 60. 
*1833. (Bodo)— KsiGRT (Charles). On the Dodo, in the " Penny Magazine." 8vo. London, 1833-1846 ; vol. 2. 

p. 209. 
*1835. (Bodo) — SwAiNSON (W.) Treatise on the Geography and Classification of Animals, in Lardner's " Cabinet 

Cyclopfedia." p. 112. 
*1836. (Bodo) — WiEGMANN (A. F. A.) Ueber den Dodo ; in " ^«^>»aM«'s Archiv fiir Naturgeschichte." 1836; 

V. 2. p. 271. 
*1836. (Bronte) — Kaup (J. J.) Das Thiei-reich in seinen Hauptformen systematisch beschrieben. 3 vols. 8vo. 

Darmstadt, 1835, 1836 ; vol. 2. p. 233. 
*1836. (Bodo) — BtiCKLAND (WUliam). Geology and Mineralogy considered with reference to Natural Theology. 

2 vols. 8vo. London, 1836 ; vol. 2. p. 17. pi. 1. f. 130. 
*1837. (Bidus) — Beonn (H. G.) Lethaea Geognostica, oder Abbildungen u. Beschreibungen der fiir die Gebirgs- 

formationenbezeichnendsten Versteinerungen. Svols. 8vo. and atlas 4to. Stuttgart, 1835-1837; pp.834, 

1171. pi. 44. f. 7. 
*1837. (Bodo) — Broderip (William John). The article Dodo in the "Penny Cyclopaedia." vol. 9. p. 47. 
*1839. (Bidus ineptus) — La Fresnaye (M. de). Nouvelle Classification des Oiseaux de Proie, ou Rapaces ; in the 

"Revue Zoologique par la Societe Cuvierienne." 1839. p. 193. 
*1840. (Bodo) — Geay (J. E.) Synopsis of the contents of the British Museum. 12mo. London, 1840. p. 99. 

1841. (Drow/f)— Eeinhaedt (Cand.) in Froricp's "Notizen." 1841. No. 364. 
*1842. (Drortfe)— Reinhardt (Cand.) Noiere Oplysning om det i Kiobenhavn fimdne Drontehoved ; in 

tf. Xroyer's " Naturhistorisk Tidskrift." Svo. Kiobenhavn ; vol. 4. p, 71. 

2 M 


*1842. (Dodo) — Owen (Richard). Notice of Savery's picture at the Hague in the " Penny Cyclopaedia." vol. 23. 

p. 143. 
*1843. (Bidus ineptus) — Lehmann ( ). Ein Nachtrag iiber den Didus ineptus. 8vo. Kopenhagen; 1843. — 

Nov. Act. Ac. Leop. Car.; vol. 21. p. 1. 
*1844. (Dodo) — Strickland (H. E.) Report on the recent progress and present state of Ornithology in "Reports 

of the British Association for the Advancement of Science" for 1844, p. 213. 
*1S45. (Didus ineptus) — Owen (R.) Descriptive and illustrated Catalogue of the fossil organic remains of Mam- 
malia and Aves contained in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons. 4to. London, 1845, p. 339. 
*1845. (Didus) — Hamel (J.) Ueber Dinomis und Didti^, zwei ausgestorbene Vogelgattungen ; in "Bulletin de la 

Classe physico-mathematique de I'Academie Imperiale des Sciences de Saint-Petersboui-g." vol. 4. p. 49. 
*1846. (Didus ineptus) — Owen (R.) Observations on the Dodo, in " Transactions of the Zoological Society of 

London." vol. 3. pp. 331, 335. — Proceedings of the Zoological Society, part 14. p. 51. 
*1846. (Didus ineptus)— Carvs (C. G.) England u. Schottland im Jahre 1844, vol. l.p. 375.— (English) The 

King of Saxony's Jom-ney tlu-ough England arid Scotland in the year 1844. (Trans, by S. C. Davison.) 

Svo. London, 1846; p. 187. 
*1846. (Dodo) — Hamel (J.) Sur un Crane de Dodo au Musee de Copenhague ; in " Bull. Classe phys. math. Ac. 

Imp. Sc. St. Pe'tersb." vol. 5. p. 314.— Instit. no. 709. p. 252.— Edinb. New Phil. Journ. v. 43. p. 405. 
*1847. (Dodo) — Hamel (J.) Tradescant der Aeltere, 1618 in Russland. 4to. Petersburg. 1847 ; p. 169. — Recueil 

des Actes de la Seance publique de I'Academie Imperiale de St. Petersbourg. 
*1847. (Dodo) — Strickland (H. E.) On the history of the Dodo and other allied species of Birds, in " Reports 

of the British Association" for 1847, Sections, p. 79.— Athenaeum, 1847, pp. 747, 769. 
*1847. (Do-do) — Forbes (Edward). The fate of the Dodo, an ornithological Romance ; in the " Literary Gazette," 

July 3, 1847, p. 493. 
*1847. (Bidus ineptus) — Sundevall (C. J.) Arsberattelse om Zoologiens Framsteg under aren 1843 och 1844. 

Svo. Stockholm 1847 ; p. 183. 
1847. (Dodo) — Canino (C. L. Bonaparte, Prince of). On the Dodo. — Riunione degli Scienziati Italiani in 

Yenezia, Settembre, 1847. — AUgemeine Zeitung, Sept. 24, 1847 ; Beilage, p. 2131. 
*1848. (Dodo) — Brandt (J. F.) Untersuchungen iiber die Verwandschaften, die systematische SteUung, die geo- 
'^\ graphische Verbreituug und die Vertilgung des Dodo, nebst Bemerkungen iiber die im Vaterlande des 

Dodo oder auf den Nachbarinseln desselben friiher vorhandenen grossen Wadvogel. — Bulletin de la Classe 

phys. math, de 1' Acad. Imp. de St. Petersbom-g. vol. 7. p. 38. 
*1848. (Dronte) — Fitzingek (L. J.) Mittheilungen iiber eine Original-Abbildung des Dronte, (Didus ineptus, 

Linne) von Roland Savery in der k. k. Gemalde-Gallerie im Belvedere zu Wien ; in Wiegmanns " Archiv 

fiir Natiu-geschichte," 1848. p. 79. 
*1848, (Dodo) — Hamel (J.) Der Dodo, die Einsiedler, und die erdiehtete Nazarvogel. Svo. Petersburg, 1848. — 

Bulletin physico-mathematique de I'Academie des Sciences de St. Petersboiu-g. vol. 7. No. 5, 6. 
*1848. (Dodo) — Strickland (H. E.) and Melville (A. G.) The Dodo and its Kindi-ed, or the History, 

Affmities, and Osteology of the Dodo, Solitaire, and other extinct Birds of the Islands Mauritius, 

Rodriguez, and Bom-bon. 4to. London, 1848. 


*1691. (Solitaire) — Leguat (Francois). Voyages et Avantures de Francois Leguat. 2 vols. 12mo. London, 1708 ; 
ed. 2. 1720. — (EugKsh) A new Voyage to the East Indies, by Francis Leguat and his companions. 
12mo. London, 1708. 



*1770. (Solitaire) — Buffon (G. L. Le Clerc de). Histoire naturelle des Oiseaux. 9 vols. 4to. Paris, 1770-1783; 

vol. 1. p. 485.— Ed. 2. 10 vols. fol. Paris, 1771-1786 ; vol. 2. p. 77.— NouveUe edition par C. S. Smmini, 

28 vols. 8vo. Paris, 1801-1805 ; vol. 4. p. 343. pi. 33. f. 2. 
*1781. {Eiusiedler) — Borowski (G. H.) Gemeinnutzige Naturgeschichte des Thierreichs. 2 vols. 8vo. Berlin 

1781, 1782; vol.1, p. 162. 
*1785. {Solitary Bodo) — L.\tham (John). A general Synopsis of Birds. 3 vols. 4to. London, 1781-1785 ■ 

vol. 3. p. 3. 
*1788. (JDidiis solitariiis) — Gmelin (J. P.) Caroli a ZiKree Systema Natures, editio decima tertia, aucta, reformata. 

3 vols. 8vo. Lipsiae, 1788-1793 ; vol. 1. p. 728. 
1788. (Solitaire)— ^Ay (P. A. P.) Zoologie universelle at portative. 4to. Paris, 1788, p. 567. 
*1790. (Didus solitariiis) — Bonnaterre (L'Abbe). Tableau encyclopedique et methodique des trois regnes de la 

Nature. Ornitliologie. 3 vols. 4to. Pai-is, 1790-1823 ; vol. 1. p. 166. 
*1790. (Didifs solitariiis) — Latham (John). Index Ornithologicus sive Systema Omithologise. 2 vols. 4to. 

London, 1790, p. 662. 
*1795. (Bidiis solitariiis) — Donndorf (J. A.) Omithologische Beytrage zur xiii. Ausgabe des Linneischen 

Natursystems. 2 vols. 8vo. Leipzig, 1795 ; vol. 2. p. 20. 
*1795. (Bidits solitarius) — Bechstein (J. M.). Joliann Latham's allgemeine Uebersicht der Vogel. 4 vols. 4to. 

Nm-nberg, 1792-1812 ; vol. 2. p. 765. 
*1S01. (Solitaire) — Grant (Charles). The History of Mauritius, or the Isle of France, and the neighbouring 

Islands, from their first discovei-y to the present time. 4to. London, 1801 ; p. 117. 
*1808. (Didiis solitarius) — Rees (Abraham). Article Didus in "The New Cyclopaedia or Universal Dictionary of 

Arts, Sciences, and Literature." Vol. 10. pt. 2. 
*1819. (Solitaire) — SoNNiNi (C. N. S.) Nouveau Dictionnaire d'Histoire Naturelle. Nouvelle edition. 36 vols. 

8vo. Paris, 1816-1819 ; vol. 31. p. 376. 
*1823. (Solitary Bodo) — Latham (John). A general History of Bii-ds. 10 vols. 4to. Winchester, 1821-1824 ; 

vol. 8. p. 374. 
*1827. (Solitaire) — Dumont (C.) Art. Solitaire in " Dictionnaire des Sciences naturelles." Vol. 49. p. 451. 
*1830. (Bronte) — Cuvier (G.) Sur quelques ossemens qui paraissent appartenir a une espece perdue seidement 

depiiis deux siecles. Ann. des Sc. Nat. vol. 21. Eev. Bibl. p. 103. — Eevue Sept. 103, 104, 109, lib. 

— BuU. Sc. Nat. vol. 22. p. 122.— Edinb. Joura. Nat. Sc. vol. 3. p. 30. 
*1832. (Bodo) — Desjardins (JuUen). Analyse des travaux de la Societe d'Histoire Naturelle de I'He Maurice 

pendant la 2de Annec. — Proc. Com. Zool. Soc. pt. 2. p. 111. — Phd. Mag. ser. 2. v. 1. p. 461. 
*1833. (Bodo) — Telfair (Charles). On bones of the Dodo found in Rodriguez, in "Proceedings of Zoological 

Society of London," part 1. p. 31. 
*1844. (Solitaire) — Strickland (H. E.) On the evidence of the former existence of Struthious Birds, distinct 

from the Dodo, in the islands near Mauritius; in "Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London,'' 

part 12. p. 77. 


*1613. (A great fowl) — Tatton (J.) Voyage of Castleton in Purchas's, Pilgrimage, ed. 1625, vol. 1. p. 333. — 
Prevost, Histoire generale des Voyages, vol. 2. p. 120. — Harris's Voyages, vol. 1. p. 115. — Grant's 
Mauritius, p. 164. 

*1618. (Bod-eerseu) — Bontekoe van Hoorn (\V. Y.) Journael ofte gedenckwaerdige beschrij^inge van de Oost- 
Indische Eeyse. 4to. Haerlem, 1646, p. 6 ; Rotterdam, 1647, p. 7 ; Amsterdam, 1648, p. 5 ; 1650, 
p. 5 ; 1656 ; Utrecht, 1649, p. 6 ; 1651. — Journael van de acht-jarige avontuerlijcke Eeyse van Willem 


Ysbrantsz Bontekoe van Hoom, gedaen nae Oost-Indien. 4to. Amsterdam, by Gillis Joosten Zamjman. 

No date. — (French) in Theoenot's Relations de divers Voyages curieux. Paris, 1663, vol. 1. — (German) in 

Hulsm, Vier und zwanzigste ScMffart. 4to. Franefort, 1648. p. 7. 
*1668. {Oiseau Solitaire) — Carre (M.) Voyages des Indes Orientales. 2 vols. 12mo. Paris, 1699; vol. 1. p. 12. 

— Prevost, Hist. gen. des Voyages, vol. 9. p. 3. 
*1669. {Solitaire et Oiseau bleu) — ^D. B. (Sieur). MS. Journal in Library of Zoological Society. — Proceedings of 

Zool. Soc. pt. 12. p. 77. 
*1819. {Oiseau bleu) — Rees (A.) Cyclopaedia, art. " Bourbon." 
*1829. (Dronte am Solitaire) — Billiard (A.) Voyage aux Colonies Orientales, ou lettres ecrites des Isles de 

France et de Bourbon, pendant les annees 1817, 1818, 1819, et 1820. 8vo. Paris, 1829, p. 261. 
*1844. (Solitaire and Oiseau bleu) — Strickland (H. E.) On the evidence of the former existence of Struthious 

Birds distinct from the Dodo in the islands near Mauritius ; in " Proceedings of the Zoological Society 

of London," part 12. p. 78. 


Plate I. — Frontispiece. — Fac-sLmile of Roland Savery's figiu-e of the Dodo in his picture of the Fall of Adam, in 

the Royal Gallery at BerUu. 
Plate II. p. 9.— Fac-simile of Plate 2 of the French edition of Van Neck's Voyage, fol. Amsterdam, 1601. This 

plate is copied by De Bry, and other editors of Van Neck. The Dodo, at Fig. 2, is also introduced by 

De Bry into the ornamental title-page of his India OrientaKs, Pars V. 
Plate III. p. 30. — Fac-simile of Roland Savery's picture of the Dodo in the Belvedere at Vienna. 
Plate III.* p. 46. — View of the Island of Rodriguez, looking South. 
Plate IV. p. 48. — Fac-simile of the Frontispiece of Leguat's Voyage. 
Plate TV'.* p. 50. — View of Port Mathurin, Rodriguez, looking West. 

Plates II., III., III.*, r\'., and IV.', are examples of various applications of Anastatic Printing. Plate II. is a fac-simile of an engraving 
executed by tracing the original, line for line, with a steel pen, lithographic ink, and tracing paper. The drawing is then trans- 
ferred, by the Anastatic process, to a plate of zinc, and piinted from as in ordinary ziucogi'aphy or lithography. Plate IV. is 
executed in the same way as Plate II., except that its details are copied by the eye instead of being traced. Plates III., III.* 
and IV.*, are examples of a new art to which I have given the name of Fapt/rograpky, (See Athencewm, Feb. 12, 1848.) It 
consists in drawing on paper with lithographic chalk, and in transferring the drawings, so made, to a plate of zinc, by the 
Anastatic process. These drawings, when printed, bear a close resemblance to lithographs, and enable an artist or a traveller by 
merely using lithographic chalk instead of a lead pencil, to print and publish his original sketches (without redrawing or 
reversing), at any interval of time. For Plate III.* and IV.* I am indebted to E. Higgin, Esq., of Liverpool, who sent the 
drawings by post to Oxford, where they were transferred and printed by Mr. P. H. Delamotte. — H. E. .S. 

Plate V. 

Fig. 1. Side view of the head of the Dodo, with the dried skin, from the unique specimen in the Ashmolean Museum 
at Oxford. 

Fig. 3. Side view of the head of the Dodo, restored chiefly from the celebrated picture, presented by Edwards to the 
British Museum. The great development of the cere, the tubidar nostril opening forwards, the form 
and abrupt termination of the horny sheaths which have disappeared in Fig. 1, the extent of the gape, 
and the camncular folds at the base of the upper gnathotheca, on the forehead, and extending from the 
angle of the mouth, are well exhibited. 

Plate VI. 

Front, side, and back views of the leg of the Dodo, in the British Museum. These two plates were executed 
for that valuable work, the " Genera of Birds," by Messrs. G. R. Gray, and D. W. Mitchell, who have 
obligingly aUowed us the use of them. 


Plate VIL 

Fig. 1. Didunculm strigirostris, one-third of natural size, (reduced from the figure in Mr. Gould's " Birds of 

Fig. 2. Head of ditto, natural size, to show the extension of the cere round the eye, the nostril opening downwards, 

the great curvature of the upper, and the teeth on the lower homy sheath, with the abrupt termination 

of both. 
Fig. 3. Head of Treron abyssinica. The peculiar columbine cere and pouting of the nasal scale, the oblique orifice 

of the nostril inclined forwards and upwards, and the abnipt tei-mination of the horny sheaths are shown. 
Pig. 4. Head of VerrvUa carunculata, to show the great development of wattles in a member of the Columbidce. 
Fig. 5. Front view of left leg of Treron abyssinica. 
Fig. 5 a. Side view of ditto. 
Fig. 6. Front view of ditto of Geopkaps scripta. 
Fig. 6 a. Side view of ditto. 

In the former the inner toe is shorter, in the latter longer, than the outer. 

Side view of the skuU of the Dodo. 

Fig. 1. Upper view of skull of the Dodo. 
Fig. 2. Lower view of ditto. 


Plate IX. 

Plate LX.* 

Fig. 1. Back view of skull of the Dodo. 

Fig. 2. Upper view of lower jaw. 

Kg. 3. Lower view of ditto. 

F'ig. 4. Inner view of ditto, partly in outline, as it could not be viewed directly by the artist. 

Fig. 5. Cii-cle of sclerotic bones in the Dodo, with the sclerotic coat of the eye-ball. 

Plate X. 

Fig. 1. Side view of skidl of Biduti cuius strigirostris. 

Fig. 1 a. Back new of ditto. 

Fig. 1 b. Upper view of ditto. 

Fig. 1 c. Lower view of ditto. 

Fig. 2. Side view of skull of the Dodo, reduced to one-third for more accurate comparison. 

Fig. 2 a. Back view of ditto, similarly reduced. 

Fig. 3. Side, Fig. 3 a. back, 3 b. upper, and 3 c. lower views of skull of Trero7i rhlorigaster. 

Fig. 4. ditto. 4 a. _ 4 i. _ and 4 c. Goura Steursii. 

Fig. 5. ditto. h a. — <S b. — and 5 c. Geophaps Smithii. 

Fig. 6. Section of skull of Treron chlorigaster, to show the great development of the frontal diploe, which in the 

Dodo forms the inter-orbital protuberance. 
Fig. 7. Outer view of tympanic bone of Didiincidus strigirostris. 
Fig. 7 a. Inner view of ditto. 
Fig. 7 b. Lower view of ditto. 

Fig. 8. Ai-ticular surface of lower jaw, of Didunculm strigirostris. 
Fig. 9. Front view of metatarsus of Didunculus strigirostris. 
Fig. 9 a. Back view of ditto. 


Fig . 9 b. Inner view of metatarsus of Diduncuhis strigirostris. 

Fig. 9 c. Outer view of ditto. 

Fig. 9 d. View of upper extremity of ditto. 

Fig. 9 e. lower extremity of ditto. 

Fig. 10. Back view of posterior metatarsal of ditto. 
Fig. 10 a. Front view of ditto. 

Plate XI. 
Fig. 1. Front new of metatarsus of the Dodo. 
Fig. 2. Back view of ditto. 

Fig. 3. Inner view of the metatarsus, and of posterior metatarsal of ditto. 
Fig. 4. Outer view of the metatarsus of the Dodo. 
Fig. 5. View of upper extremity of ditto. 
Fig. 6. View of lower extremity' of ditto. 
Fig. 7. Back view of posterior metatarsal of the Dodo. 
Fig. 8. Front view of ditto. 
Fig. 9. Oblique view of ditto. 
Pig. 10. Upper view of ditto. 

Fig. 11. Front view of metatarsus of Goura coronala. 
Fig. 13. Back view of ditto. 
Fig. 13. Inner riew of ditto. 
Fig. 14. View of upper extremity of ditto. 
Fig. 15. View of lower extremity of ditto. 
Fig. 16. Back view of posterior metatarsal of ditto. 
Fig. 17. Front view of ditto. 

Fig. 18 and 19. Front and back views of posterior metatai-sal of Didunmlus strigirostris. 
Fig. 20 to 24. Corresponding views of metatarsus of Pimps picata. 
Fig. 25. Back view of posterior metatarsal of ditto. 
Fig. 26 to 31. Corresponding views of metatarsi of Geop/ia2)s scripta. 

Fig. 32 to 37. of Treron chlorigaster. 

Fig. 38 to 43. of hyplwikemAm antarctiais. 

Plate XII. 

Fig. 1. Front view of metatarsus and toes of the Dodo. 

Fig. 1 a. Back view of ditto. 

Fig. 1 5. Inner view of ditto. 

Fig. 2. Posterior articular facets of proximal phalanges ; a, h, c, glenoid fibro-eartilages of three front toes. 

Fig. 3. Back view of outer toe of the Dodo, to show the glenoid ligaments ; a, the upper. 

Fig. 4. Proximal, and 4 a, distal articular facets of second phalanx of outer toe of the Dodo. 

Fig. 5. Side view of imgual phalanx of outer toe of the Dodo. 

Fig. 5 o. Articular surface of ditto. 

Fig. 6. Front view of foot of Treron chlorigaster. 

Fig. 6 a. Hind toe of ditto. 

Fig. 7. Front view of foot of Coluniba wnas. 

Fig. 7 a. Hind toe of ditto. 

Fig. 8. Front view of foot of Oeopliaps SmitJdi. 

Fig. 8 a. Hind toe of ditto. 


Plate XIII. 

Fig. 1. Upper view of cranium of Solitaire, in Parisian Collection. 

Fig. 2. Lower do. 

Fig. 3. Side do. 

Fig. 4. Back do. 

Fig. 5. Front view of fragment of sternum. do. 

Fig. 6. Side view of do. 

Plate XIV. 

Fig. 1. Front view of humerus of Solitaire, in Parisian Collection. 

Fig. 2. Back view of do. do. 

Fig. 3. View of lower extremity of do. 

Fig. 4. Front view of femur of do. in Andersonian Museum. 

Fig. 5. Back view of do. do. 

Fig. G. View of upper extremity of do. 

Fig. 7. View of lower do. do. 

Fig. 8. Front view of femur of Solitaire, in Parisian Collection. 

Fig. 9. View of upper extremity of do. 

Fig. 10. View of lower do. do. 

Plate XV. 

Fig 1. Front view of fragment of tibia of Solitaire, in Andersonian Museum. 

Fig. 1 a. View of lower extremity of do. 

Fig. 2. Front view of metatarsus of do. 

Fig. 2 a. Back do. do. 

Fig. 2 b. Outer do. do. 

Fig. 3. Outer view of do. do. in Parisian CoDection. 

Fig. 3 a. Anterior view of upper part of do. 

Fig. 3 b. lower part of do. 

Fig. 3 c. View of upper extremity of do. 

Fig. 3 d. lower do. do. 

Fig. 4. Back view of fragment of metatarsus of ditto, in the Andersonian Museum, to show the calcaneal canal. 

*4* All the bones are figured of the natural size. 


Page 12. Clusius's figure of the Dodo. 
18. Van den Broecke's ditto. 

19. figure of a brevipennate bird. 

— Sir Thomas Herbert's figure of ' A Dodo.' 

21. of ' A Hen.' 

24. Piso's figure of the Dodo. 

28. Deduced copy of the celebrated painting of the Dodo in the British Museum. 

49. Leguat's figure of the Solitaire. 

63, and Title. Bontekoe's figure of the Dodo. 



Affinities of the Dodo, 35 

Anterior facet of Dodo's skull, 86 

Auks remote from Biditia, 35 

Berlin, picture of Dodo at, 30 

Bibliography of Bidina, 137 

Billiard, his account of Bourbon, 60 

Bird, unknown, figui'ed by Van den Broecke, .... 19 

figured by Herbert, 21 

— described by Cauche, 21 

— by Leguat, 55 

Blain^iUe, his opinion on the Dodo, 36 

Blyth, on the habits of Columhida, 40, 54 

Bontekoe, voyage of, > 57, 63 

Bourbon, visited by Castleton 57 

Bontekoe, 57 

Carre, 58 

Sieur D. B., 58 

Billiard, 60 

notice of, in Grant's Mauritius, 60 

Brandt, J. F., his opinion on the Dodo, 120 

Broderip, his opinion on the Dodo, 38 

Broecke, Van den, voyage of, 18 

Carre, voyage of, 58 

Carus, his visit to Oxford, Ill 

Castleton, voyage of, 57 

Cauche, voyage of, 21 

Cerebral cavity of the Dodo, 89 

Ceme, origin of the name, 8 

Chi-onological succession of organized beings, .... 3 

Clusius's account of the Dodo 13 

ColumbidtE, see Pigeons. 

Constellation of the Solitaire, 64 

Cranial vertebrae, opinions respecting, 87 

Cranium, constancy of its characters in Birds and 

Mammals 69 

Cuninghame, Mr., his researches, 51, 52 

Dawkins, Col., his visit to Rodi'iguez, 51 

D. B., voyage of, 58 

Death of species, a law of Nature, 3 

Didbia destroyed by human agency, 5 

bibliography of, 127 

Didimculus described, 39, 98, 106 



Didunculus, Gould's opinion respecting, .... 40, 65, 97 
JDidus iiieptua, see Dodo. 

Bldm nazaremts, the same as the Dodo, 31 

Bidm soUtariiis, see Solitaire. 

Differences between Dodo & other groups, 75,97,108,112 

Buwrnis of New Zealand, 61 

Distribution, geographical, of organic groups, .... 3 

Dodars, etymology of, 15 

Dodo, historical evidences respecting, 7 

Van Neck's account of, 9 

one brought alive to HoUand, 11 

Clusius's account of, 12 

Heemskerk's account of, 13 

West-Zanen's account of, 13 

leg of, seen by Clusius, 16 

MateHef 's account of, 17 

Van der Hagen's account of, 17 

Verhuffen's account of, 17 

Van den Broecke's figure of, 18 

Herbert's account of, ..... - 19 

Cauche's account of, 21 

Lestrange's account of, 22 

Piso's account of, ' . . 23 

Tradescant's specimen of, 23 

' its fate, 32 

leg of, in Hubert's collection, 25 

head of, in Gottorf Museum, 25, 38 

Harry's notice of, 26 

extinction of, 27 

negative evidence respecting, 27 

pictorial evidence respecting, 28 

paintings of, by E. Savery, 28, 64 

painting of, by J. Savery, 31 

anatomical evidence respecting, 31 

leg of, in British Museum, 31 

its general appearance, 33 

affinities of, 35 

opinions respecting, 36, 65 

its affinity to Pigeons, ... 39, 41, 54, 65, 72, 106 

external characters of, 41 

internal characters of, 43, 72 

pecuUar characters of, 44, 97 




Dodo, Bontekoe's notice of, 57, 63 

colour of its plumage 64 

osteology of its cranium, 71 

its difl'erences from Vultmidse, 75, 108, 113 

fi-om Insessores, 76 

from Easores, 76, 108, 112 

from otlier Columbidae, 44, 97 

osteology of its foot, 100 

Dronte, see Dodo. 

etymology of, 16 

Edwards, Ms account of the picture in the British 

Museum, 28 

Evidences, historical, of the Dodo, 8 

negative, of the Dodo, 27 

. pictorial, of the Dodo, 29 

anatomical, of the Dodo, 31 

of the Solitaire, 46 

of brevipennate birds in Bourbon, 57 

in Madagascar, . . 61 

summary of, 61 

Flacourt's account of Madagascar, 61 

Foot of Dodo, osteology of, 100 

Solitaii-e, osteology of, 115 

Forges, see Hubert. 

Fresnaye, La, his opinion on the Dodo, 37 

Gama, Vasoo de, not the discoverer of Mamitius, . 8 

" Geans " of Leguat, 60, 64 

Oelinottes, Leguat's account of, 55 

Geographical distribution of organic groups, 3 

GnaUiodoH, see Bidunculus. 

Gottorf Museum, Dodo's head in, 25, 33, 45 

Gould, his opinion on the Dodo, 37 

Didunciilus, 40, 65, 97 

Gray, J. E., his opinion on the Dodo, 37 

Hague, picture of Dodo at, 29 

Hagen, Van der, voyage of, 17 

Hamel, Dr., his treatise on the Dodo, 64 

Harmansen, voyage of, 13 

Harry, voyage of, 26 

Heemskerk, voyage of, 13 

Hen, a, Herbert's ligure of, 21 

Herbert, voyage of, 19 

his aUusion to the Solitaire, 50 

Higgin, Mr., his visit to llodriguez, 50 

Hubert, his notice of a Dodo's leg, 25 

Humming Birds, confined to America, 3 

Hyde, his notice of the Tradescantian Dodo, 23 

Imperfection cannot be asserted of any organism, . 34 

Indian Ocean, islands of, 4 

• — map of, 6 

Inferior facet of Dodo's skuU, 79 


Interorbital septum, its homologies, 87 

Introduction to Part 1 3 

Introduction to Part II 69 

KeUy, Capt., his visit to Kodriguez, 52 

Lachrymal bone, its homologies, 87 

Lateral facet of Dodo's skuU, 79 

Leguat, voyage of, 46 

Le Monnier, a better astronomer than ornithologist, 64 

Lestrange, his account of a living Dodo 22 

Llhwyd, his notice of the Tradescantian Dodo, ... 23 

London, picture of Dodo at, 28 

Madagascar, supposed brevipennate birds in 61 

Man, agency of, in hastening the death of species, 3 

Mandible, upper, of Dodo, 90 

lower, of Dodo, 95 

Matelief, voyage of, 17 

Mauritius, first discovered by Mascaregnas, 8 

visited by Van Neck, 9 

by Heemskerk, 13 

by West-Zanen, 13 

by Matelief, 17 

by Van der Hagen, 17 

by Verhuli'en, 17 

by Van den Broecke, 18 

by Herbert, 19 

by Cauche, 21 

by Harry 26 

by Leguat 27 

colonized by the Dutch, 27 

by the French, 27 

MelviJle, Dr., on the Osteology of the Dodo and 

Solitau'e, 67 

Metatarsus of Dodo, 101 

• of Pigeons, 106 

Nazareth, island of, ... 21, 64 

Neck, C. Van, voyage of, 9 

New Zealand, analogy of its fauna to that of the 

Mauritian islands, 61 

Oiseaux bleus of Bourbon described, 59 

Olearius, his notice of a Dodo's head, 25 

Organs of certain species permanently undeveloped, 33 

Osteology of the Dodo 71 

Solitaire, 113 

Owen, Professor, his account of R. Savery's picture, 29 

his opinion on the Dodo, . . 38, 65, 70 

Oxford, state of science in, in 1755, 32 

■ picture of Dodo at, 31 

Palatine bones of Dodo, 93 

Penguins remote from Bidin/g, 35 

Pezophaps, proposed generic name for Solitaire, . . 54 

Picture of Dodo at London, 28 




Picture of Dodo at the Hague, 29 

— — BerUn, 30 

Vienna, 30 

■ Oxford, 31 

Pigeons, their affinity to the Dodo, . . 39, 41, 54, 65, 72 

some species lay one egg 54 

comparative osteology of, 97, 106, 111 

Pingre, his visit to Rodriguez, 64 

Piso, his account of the Dodo, 23 

Plovers remote from Pigeons, 122 

Posterior facet of Dodo's skull, 76 

Pteiygoid bone of Dodo, 94 

Raptores remote from Bidinee, 41, 108 112 

Rasores remote from DidhuB, 76, 108, 112 

Reinhardt, his opinion on the Dodo, 40 

Representation in Zoology, 46 

Rodi'iguez visited by Leguat, 46 

by Mr. Higgin, 50 

bones found in, 51 

nsited by Col. Dawkins, 51 

Pingi'e, 64 

Savery, J., his picture of the Dodo, 31 

Savery R., his pictures of the Dodo, 29, 64 

Size, unimportant in classification, 39, 69 

Skull of the Dodo, osteology of, 69, 76 

Solitaire, osteology of, 113 

Soldt, Paul van, his Journal, 64 

Solitaire of Bourbon, Tatton's account of, 57 

Bontekoe's accoimt of, 57 

Carre's account of, 58 

Sieur D. B.'s account of, ... . 58 

BiUiard's account of, 60 

• negative evidence respecting, . 60 

Solitaire of Rodriguez, evidences respecting, 46 

Leguat's account of, 47 

Herbert's allusion to, 50 

negative eridence respecting, 51 


Solitaire of Rodriguez, bones of, in Paris Museum, 52, 53 
in Andersonian Mu- 
seum, 25 

given to Zoological 

Society, 52 

where to seek for 

them, 52, 65 

— - affinities of, to the Dodo, . 54, 119 

intended for a constellation, . 64 

osteology of, 113 

Solitary Thrush, a constellation, 64 

Species, extinction of, by human agency, 5 

Sternum of Solitaire, 114 

Stnithious birds remote from Bidhice, 35 

Succession, chronological, of organized beings, ... 3 

Superior facet of Dodo's skuU, 83 

Tarsus absent in Birds, 101 

Tatton, his account of Bourbon, 57 

TeKair, Mr., his researches, 51 

Toes of Dodo, 102, 109 

Tradescant, his notice of a stuffed Dodo, 23 

Treron, its affinity to Didus, 89, 41 

Translations of foreign extracts, 123 

Tympanic bone of Dodo, 94 

Types of structure in creation, 34, 69 

Van Neck, see Neck. 

Verhuffen, voyage of, 17 

Verkens, journalist of Verhuffen's voyage, 64 

Vertebrse, cranial, opinions respecting, 87 

Vienna, picture of Dodo at, 30, 64 

Vigors, his opinion on the Dodo, 36 

Votiron patra of Madagascar, 61 

Vidtures remote from Bidiius 41, 108, 112 

Walcks'ogel, a name for Dodos, 9 

West-Zanen, voyage of, 13 

WiUughby, his notice of the Tradescantian Dodo, . 23 


Page 4, folio, /or iv. read 4. 

30, line 32, /or Bellvedere, read Belvedere. 

38, „ 26, /or 1845, read 1846. 

44, „ ^./o'' tarso-metarsal, read tarso-metatarsal. 

57, „ 27,/or 1674, rertf/ 1647. 

70, „ 6, /or posterior, reorf superior. 

70, 74, 81, /or lacryraal, read lachrymal. 

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